Gotheborg.com - The Antique Chinese Porcelain Collectors Page

Marks on Later Chinese Porcelain

Mr. Kung and Simon Ng, Hong Kong

This entire marks section would not have been possibly without the dedicated help of Mr. Simon Ng (right), City University of Hong Kong, whose translations and personal efforts in researching the origin and dates of the different marks have been and remains a necessary resource. To the left, porcelain merchant Mr. Kung, Hong Kong. Former owner of the Waa Lee porcelain company.

The only rule that is really certain when it comes to Chinese porcelain marks, is that most of them are NOT from the period they say. Still the marks are something of a fingerprint of the potter and its time, and from a careful study they offer a great help in identifying the date and maker of most Chinese porcelain. Offered here is an attempt to identify some of the marks on mostly late, trade and export quality porcelain. Under the MING and QING sections, there are separate pages dedicated to genuine Imperial marks only, but it is still not the main concern of this section.

Unfortunately I have no further information on the marks published here, or of similar marks but not published here, than what is already here to read. For further discussions on antique Chinese and Japanese Ceramic Art you are most welcome to visit the [ Gotheborg.com Discussion Board ].

If you would like my personal help or opinion on something there is a possibility to email me a question, send any number of pictures you like, and help support the site at the same time. Click here to [ Ask a Question ].

This page was originally set up to create a tentative chronology of 20th century Chinese Porcelain based on their marks. The periods of the 20th century I am currently trying to differentiate between are so far:

  1. Late Qing (1875-1916)
  2. Early Republic (1917-35)
  3. Late Republic (1935-49)
  4. Early PROC (1949-1966)
  5. Cultural Revolution period (1966-76)
  6. Late PROC (1976-1995)
  7. 21st Century (1995- )

Jan-Erik Nilsson
gotheborg.com




BLUE DE HUE
641. Mark reads Nei Fu, can be translated as "Inner Court". On Chinese "Bleu de Hue" porcelain, for the Vietnamese market. Mid 19th C.

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642. Mark reads Nei Fu, can be translated as "Inner Court". On Chinese "Bleu de Hue" porcelain, for the Vietnamese market. Late 19th C.


Brown etched marks

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307. Chenghua Nian Zhi (Chenghua Period Made). Late 20th century, post "Cultural Revolution".


"CHINA"
From 1891 all Chinese items imported into the US was required to be marked with "CHINA". (U.S. Stamp Act of 1894). In the early 20th Century some Chinese porcelain still arrived to the US only marked with paper labels. In 1919 "CHINA" should have been replaced by "Made in China" but just "CHINA" occurs in fact on pieces still made today.
279. Probably ca 1910-20.
2. Probably 1920-30's.
296. Probably ca 1910-30.

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66, 197, 199. Mid 20th century, ca 1950-60.
205. Mid to late 20th century, ca 1960 or later.
514. Probably c. 1930-60.

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509. Probably c. 1960-70.

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600. Probably c. 1960-70.

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637. Mistake "CHINA" mark, either genuine and then from the Guangxu /Early Republic period, or a "mock mistake" and then new. My guess c. 1930.

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Various places in China
38. Mark: Guangdong Qi Chang (Guangdong Procelain Factory). Late 19th-20th century.
387. Yuedong Qi Chang - East Guangdong Porcelain Factory
603. Mark: Yang Cheng. Yang Cheng is the ancient name of Canton (Guangzhou) City, literally meaning Goat City. The picture is a pair of goats holding a vase. Possibly 1940-60's. Myth legend tells of Guangzhou was founded by Five Immortals riding five rams, each ram planted a stalks of rice grain which symbolizes abundant of harvest or prosperity.

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164. Mark: Yang Cheng. Yang Cheng is the ancient name of Canton City, meaning Goat City. The picture is a pair of goats holding a vase. Possibly 1960's

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488. Mark: Yang Cheng Wu Chen Nian Zhi - "Canton Wu Chen Year Made". Matching years for "Wu Chen" are 1988, 1928, 1868, 1808 and so on.

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23. Mark: Zhong guo Swatow - "China Swatow"
424. Mark: Zhong Guo Chao Cai - "China, Swatow, Enamels". Probably 1970's.

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798. Plate with "mille fleure"-decoration. Zhong Guo Chao Cai - "Enameled ware from Chao Zhou, China". The area is North West of Guangdong area, previously better know as part of Swatow. Late 20th century.

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69. Zhong guo Tang Shan (China Tang Shan City). Modern mark, North Chinese porcelain factory, Ca 1990-95.
110. Zhong Guo Wu Ci (China Wu Ci City). Late 20th century (probably 1980's)
119. Guang Dong Gong Yi (Canton Art) on bowl with Rose Mandarin decoration, supplemented with sticker saying "decorated in Macao". Mid 20th century. The sticker might have been applied for the purpose of avoiding tax, since it actually are a sticker and not stamp, and the whole thing might be from Canton anyway.
177. "Zhang Guo Sha Men" (China Sha Men City). Modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
180. Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
181. Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
208. "Nanjing Road" is probably the famous business street in Shanghai, at its height of glory in the 1930's.


Decorated in Hong Kong, on Japanese Porcelain
115. Da Qing Qianlong (Great Qing Qianlong). The gold mark reads: JAPAN CHINA, DECORATED IN, HONG KONG, which seems to indicate that the actual porcelain bowl might be Japanese, while the decoration is added in Hong Kong. Notice that the red mark also must have been applied in Hong Kong since it is actually moved off center to give way for the gold mark. Probably 1960's.
264. The plate imported from Japan. Enamels added in Hong Kong. CLS is the Export copany or the trading agent / company (1960).

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1256. Vase blank imported from Japan with its enamels added in Hong Kong. Ca 1960-70.

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"Daoguang" (1821-50)
480. Mark: Da Qing Daoguang Nian Zhi "Daoguang (1821-50) period made", but c. 1990.

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1037. Mark: Da Qing Daoguang Nian Zhi "Qing Dynasty Daoguang period make", but c. 1970-90.

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950. Mark: Peach symbol Date: Daoguang period (1821-50).

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FACTORY NAMES
114. Yi Qian Tang (factory name) Long Nian Zhi (Made in the year of the Dragon). Likely to be from the 1980's.
767. Yi Qian Tang (factory name) Long Nian Zhi (Made in the year of the Dragon). Likely to be from the 1980's.

The porcelain figure are likely to have been made in China and decorated at the Overjoy Porcelain Factory or maybe at Ah Chou Factory (The owners of the 2 factories are related). These two porcelain decoration 'factories' specialized in decorating blank porcelain dinnerware and objects, such as the cats, flower pots, vases, candlesticks, etc., mainly for foreign "expats" who had moved to Hong Kong. The blanks for the dinnerware came from Japan, while the blanks for the other objects usually came from China. There are sample patterns, or customers can make up their own design, or the factories will also copy any pattern the customer prefers. They were proud of the fact that the enamels for decorating their wares all came from Germany, thus were safe vis a vis food consumption, unlike some of the dinnerware from China. The blue that's painted on this cat is the standard dark non-cobalt blue that they used, and still do use. If one wanted they also had a lighter cobalt blue. Info submitted by: Sarah Parnell, 2003

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113. Yi Xing Long (factory name) Zhu (made) on Fencai enamels. Flask dated 1909.

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141. Yong Ge Cai Zhung - "Yong Ge Enamels Factory". 20th century.

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324. "Yong Mao Yuan Ji" (Yong Mao Yuan (name) Company) Possibly a late Qing Porcelain Factory. This mark could still be late 20th C.
325. "Jin Tang Fu Ji" (Jin Tong Fu (name) Company) Possibly a late Qing Porcelain Factory. This mark could still be late 20th C.
327. "Bao Zhu Li Ji", (Bao Zhu Li (name) Company). Possibly late 20th C.
333. "Shun Li Kun Ji" (Shun Li Kun Company). "Shun Li" = smooth, easy, "Kun" is a single word name, "Ji" = company. Late 19th/early 20th cerntury, before 1920.

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294. "Cao Kun Chang Zao", (Cao Kun Chang Company Made). Mark is of good quality but rubber stamped. Coral red bowl with incised dragon. 1910-30.
187. Mo Rong Chang Zao (Mo Rong Chang Company Made). Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
159. Zhang Sen Han (Company) Zao (Made). 1960's, decorated in Hong Kong?
386. Luo Fa Tai Zao - Luo Fa Tai ( Factory ) Made. Probably 1950's
319. Guang Lee Chang Hui - Guang Lee Factory Painted. 1960.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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392. "Yi Xing Cai Ci" - Yi Xing ( Company ) Enamel Porcelains. 1980 or later.
395. "Xu Qian Shi Ci". The three first characters (Xu Qian Shi) are a name and the forth, "Qi", means just "porcelain". Modern mark, last decades of the 20th century.
570. Diao Yu Tai Guo Bin Guan and Tao Ci Yan Jiu Suo. "Diao Yu Tai" is where all the foreign important people are treated and met. Guo Bin Guan means "State Guests Lodge" and Tao Ci Yan Jiu Suo means "Ceramics Research Institute". Dated 1962.

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428. Mark: Jiangxi Sheng Jingdezhen Shi Gong Yi Mei Shu Ge Zuo Gong Chang - "Jiangxi Province, Jingdezhen City, Arts and Crafts Cooperative Factory.", mid 1950's.

This mark belongs to a period when private kilns at Jingdezhen were organized as cooperatives. The cooperative movement at Jingdezhen began in late 1952, continuing into 1956, maybe into 1957. In this mark the name for cooperative he zuo she is abbreviated to he zuo. The character for factory chang is not yet simplified as it would be with the introduction of simplified characters in 1956. (Information courtesy of Freda Murck, Beijing, 2004)

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"Guangxu" (1875 - 1908)
408. Guangxu Nian Zao (1875-1908). Export quality, genuine mark and of the period, dated 1887. Qiangjing enamels, text on the sides reads "Painted by Li Yan Qing in 1887".

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Text scan 1
Text scan 2
Text scan 3

285. Guangxu Nian Zao (1875-1908). Export quality, genuine mark and of the period, probably last decades of the 19th century.

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194, 209. Stamped mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - "Guangxu period (1875-1908) made" with "CHINA" export mark. 20th century.
585. Mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - "Guangxu period (1875-1908) made". Second quarter of the 20th century.

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630. Dated in the inscription Republic 23rd year March Lin Dong made in Nanchong Mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - "Guangxu period (1875-1908) made" but dated in the inscription to 1934.

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381. Mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - "Guangxu period (1875-1908) made". Late 20th century?
763. Guang Xu Qing Yu Tang Cang - "From the Guangxu Collection of the Hall for Celebrating Surplus" or "hall of celebrating bounteous harvest". Date uncertain.

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Guan yao nei zao - "Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace"
671. Three lobed bowl, with calligraphy in dull black enamel "Flowers dancing in the breeze, Spring arrives, birds find their tunes", dated "1892". Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace) same as #660, dated 1903.

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686. Bowl. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace). Dated mid summer 1895. Inscription reads Shi Zai (at the time of) Yi Wei (matching year 1895) Zhong Qiu (mid summer) Qing Shu (Artist name).

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660. Small vase with elephant handles, with long snoozles. Calligraphy in dull black enamel, dated 1903.The yellow bird is probably "The Great Spring Scholar" which singing signals the arrival of Spring. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace) same as #671

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1155. Six sided hatstand with six medallion shaped openings. Decorated with bird and flowers on one side and a landsscape on the other side. Later qianjiang style. Red base mark Guan Yao Nei Zao meaning 'Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace'. Mark occurs in-between c. 1890 to 1903.

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Hall's / Buyer's names
126. Zeng De Tang Zhi - "Zeng De Tang Made", where "Zeng" is accumulating, collecting, learning, "De" is virtue, "Tang" is hall ( there are at least three kinds - Nobles Residence, Scholars Studios, and Notable potters Studios) which could be added up as "Hall of Collecting Virtues".
562. Shi Jin Tang Zhi , - "Shi" means generations, "Jin" means glory, forever glories? Probably early Republic, ca 1910-30.
144. Shen De Tang Zhi - "Shen De Hall Made". This could be translated as Made for the Hall of Discreet Virtue. This mark first appeared in the Daoguang period and continued to be used until mid 20 th Century. Guangxu period (1875 - 1908) or a few decades into the 20th century.
299. Shen De Tang Zhi - "Shen De Hall Made". Probably early to mid 20th century.

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288. Xushenfang Zhi - "Xu Shen Estate Ordered / made to order by Xu Shen House". Probably early Republic, ca 1920.
440. Plate says: Ru Yi Ji Xiang , common greetings. Mark says : Gui Fang Chun Guan where Gui (gather) Fang (fragrant) could be a girl's name, Chun is spring, young, tender, joy and Guan is an inn or a lodge. Tentative translations "Gui Fang's maiden lodge" or "The Spring Manse of Gathered Scents". Possibly Daoguang (1821-1850) period.

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291. "Guyue Xuan", Mark on Chinese Snuff Bottle, Glass, 20th century.

    Since this is a modern piece the details on the "Guyue Xuan" will be dealt with at some other time and place. To summarize "Guyue Xuan" might be a Qing Court room, but no evidence has been established. Some have it, it was made by a master potter of the Qing Court named "Wu", as "Gu Yue" put together becomes "Wu", which is a common surname. Some are satisfied by "Guyue Xuan" as a referral to a particular enamels decoration.

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292. Da Xiong Bao Dian. "The hall of great elegance" Litt.: "Great Mighty Holy Temple". Mid to late 20th century date.

Buddhist temples are made up of several buildings, of which any central temple would have this name displayed right across at the top centre. See also # 305.

286. "Yi Xiang Yuan - Joy Beauty Garden / Paradise of Joy and Beaury." Mark on Chinese porcelain erotic cup. 1970 or later.
284. Transformed style of seal mark, hard to make out the meaning but, could be "Hall of Hundred Tortoises". It is 20th century and could quite possibly be a Japanese mark immitating a Chinese. The cut off corners of the double framed seal is a significant feature which the painter seems to be unaware of.
323. Re Shen Zhen Cang, - "Re Shen (name) Precious Treasure". This mark is found on a large group of blue & white porcelain. The mark first appeared in the Kangxi period and became popular in the Late Qing to the Early Republic period (1900-1950). Widely used in modern replicas.


Decorated in Hong Kong
Since adding enameled decoration on white porcelain is a small scale business that could be set up anywhere with very little capital, porcelain decorators probably moved from Canton to Hong Kong to set up shop there immediately by the time of its founding in the 19th century.

The Hong Kong porcelain trade hit its peak in the 1960's, with just over a hundred workshops in the Territory only. At this time the demand for Hong Kong decorated porcelain forced the workshops to also import white porcelain from Japan to be decorated in Hong Kong. Some trading agents specifically ordered plain porcelain from Japan. The quality and price appears to have been the same as the Chinese.

The porcelain trade thrived until the 1970's when trade, stocks and shares and the whole city began to take off in mid 80s, gradually making the HK properties the most expensive in the world. At this time porcelain trading, who requires large shop areas, was gradually pushed out of the game.

Under this headline we will try collect all marks used by the Hong Kong enameling workshops.

376. "Chun Lung Sang", " Ci Yi You Xian Gong Ci", "Tel 436140", Chun Lung Sang Porcelain Company Ltd.

Chun Lung Sang was a big shop in Central Hong Kong, at Queen Victoria Street just opposite the Central Market. That was the main shop. There were other shops in Kowloon and New Territory. It was first owned by Mr. Li, who had been around longer than anyone could remember. In 1964 Mr. Li sold his business then located in Shan Wan, to Mr. Fung, Mr. Young, Mr. Wong and Mr. Kung (Wa Lee Co.). It was then moved to Central, and ran there from 1965 to 1995.

In 1997 a HK Concumer Council Report was released about that some decorative porcelain with heavy lead content may damage health. Labels like this seems to have been added from that time. Compare also mark # 309

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436. Most likely Japanese porcelain with thin, light, shallow footrim. Entirely different from most HK decorated pieces.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Dated by porcelain merchant Mr. Kung, Hong Kong to the 1960's.

Dish "A" Click here to see large picture.
Dish "B" Click here to see large picture.

368. Stanley, Hand Decorated in Hong Kong. Mid 20th century.
56. W.S.L. DECORATED IN HONG KONG
179. "Decorated in Hong Kong", mark on modern porcelain spoon
272. "Decorated in Hong Kong", mark on porcelain dish dated by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong, to 1960.

Two dishes and marks # 272 and # 273
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143. W.B.I. MADE IN CHINA. Appears to be a Canton or Hong Kong enameld vase. Early to mid 20th century.
146. "Y.T. Decorated in Hong Kong". Modern "Rose Medallion" plate. Late 20th century.
924. "Y.T. Decorated in Hong Kong". Modern "Rose Medallion" plate. Late 20th century.

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262. Hong Kong Wing Suen Lung Added Enamels (1960). "Wing Suen Lung Factory" was owned by Mr Seto in Sai Wan Ho, East part of HK island in the 1950's. Mr. Seto ceased the business and immigrated to Canada in 1965.

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263."Wa Lee Factory Made" (Decorated in Hong Kong, 1960).

This mark was used by "Wa Lee Co." and was picked up from Mr Kung's shop, and dated by him, the former factory owner. No western characters were used together with this mark. The Wa Lee Factory opened on Ping Chau Island in 1953 and closed in 1968. Ping Chau is a remote small island, one hour boat journey from HK island, with only a few inhabitants. The factory was one of five or six on Ping Chau and at most employed 80 workers. The decorators was trained by experts brought there from Jingdezhen. The reason the factory was closed in 1968 might have a connection to the cultural revolution which started in 1966/67.

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314. "Wah Lee Factory Made" Factory Owner's dating: 1960.

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712. "Decorated in Hong Kong - ACF", Fourth quarter of 20th century.


"Hongxian"
100. Hongxian Nian Zhi (Hongxian period made). The mark probably from the 1930's


Impressed marks
579. South Chinese, Shekwan (Shiwan), mid to late 20th century.

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787. Mark: Guan, "Imperial". Modern, Longquan (Celadon) ware, probably year 2000 or later. Similar mark is also found on white wares with blue and red decoration inside the porcelain. Also modern ware.

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127. "Hua Shan" were Shan=mountain. Hua Shan is a well known mountain, renown for its beautiful pine trees and breath taking scenery, in Shaanxi Province. Here probably used as a brand or factory name. Late 20th century.

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709. Mark: He Yu - "He" Jade. Shiwan pottery candlestick. The mark and tidy round hole in the base points at a mid 20th century date.
434. Mark: "Pottery Studio / Home". Modern, made in Taiwan?
371. Possibly an effort to copy a "Wang Bing Rong" mark.
112. Wang Bing Rong Zhi (Wang Bing Rong Made). Mark probably early to mid 20th century.
280. Wang Bing Rong Zuo (Wang Bing Rong Made). Note the use of "Zuo" (created) rather than the more profane "Zhi" (made). Mark probably from mid 20th century.
125. Wang Bing Rong Zuo(Wang Bing Rong Made), a notable potter specializing in porcelain with carved decoration, almost like ivory carvings, active in Tongzhi to Guangxu period (1862 - 1908). Note the use of "Zuo" (created) rather than the more profane "Zhi" (made). Mark from the period.
256. Nie Mu Hua Zao (Nie Mu Hua Made). Probably mid 20th century, mark looks "pre cultural revolution" in style.
105, 106. Yu Sang Sing (factory name) Zuo (made). For 18th - early 20th century factory marks; very often the factory was named after the founder. Yu Sang Sing was most likely founded by "Yu Sang Sing". This mark is combined with an impressed "CHINA" mark on the base of an enameled Phenix bird. Second quarter of the 20th century.
1243. Figure with enamel decoration. Date: probably third quarter of the 20th century.

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321. Vase, "Peking glass" with lid. Mark: Daoguang Nian Zhi "Daoguang (1821-50) period made", but probably 1910-30.
76. Zhu Mao Ji Zuo - "Zhu Mao Company (Ji = Company) Made". A character by the left side of Zhu Mao Ji Zuo looks like " Jin Zhen", probably Jingdezhen. Molded figure, probably Guangxu period or slightly later. For 18th - early 20th century factory marks; very often the factory was named after the founder - Zhu Mao Ji was most likely founded by "Zhu Mao" .

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391. - Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi. Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Probably late 19th - early 20th century.
705. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made".

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195. Fu Jin Hui Guan (Fujian Club) You Chang Zi Zao (You Chang Zi Made).
You Chang Zi (1874-1922) was born in Fujin, came to Jingdezhen in around 1913, worked in Fujian Club for about nine years until he passed away in 1922 at the age of only 48. He was widely recognized the best porcelain sculptor in Jingdezhen at the time. Acording to a local saying You Chang Zi liked to give his figures a face in the image of himself. The mark is sought after but seems to have been widely copied.
577. "Wai Ming", Hong Kong. Late 20th C.

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Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi
169. Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi ( Jiangxi Procelain company). The most important factory in Jingdezhen. Established in 1910, nationalized and its name changed to Jianguo Cichang in 1949. This mark probably somehow related to # 158.
308. Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi (Jiangxi Procelain company). Early to mid 20th C ?


Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci
(Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain)
437. Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain).
The mark says Jiangxi but acording to HK porcelain dealer Mr. Kong, this is painted in HK. Style and enamels do looks HK. Note absence of factory #.

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Jiangxi, Jingdezhen, Min Ci, #
(Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain Factory #)

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213. Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain). Factory # 1.


Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci # Hao Cai
(Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain # enamel pattern)

438 1,b. Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci 3 Hao Cai - "Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain # 2 Enamel Pattern" and same, Pattern # 3. Strangely enough the "pattern #" are different but the bowls are identical. Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1960's.

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211. Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci 3 Hao Cai (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain No.6 enamel pattern). Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1960's.
162. Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci 6 Hao Cai (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain No.6 enamel pattern). Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1960's.
337. Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci 8 Hao Cai (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain No.8 enamel pattern). Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1960's.

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Kangxi
Kangxi marks are by far the richest group compared to all other period marks. Many also consider Kangxi porcelains the peak of Chinese porcelains and some Kangxi fakes are the most difficult of all to tell.

Genuine marks from the period: During most of the Kangxi reign the emperor's mark was not allowed to be used so other symbols or frequently the Ming emperor, Chenghua's mark took its place. There could also be used just empty circles with no mark within, or even no mark at all, or 4 character hallmarks marks of commendation. Late in the period the order was rescinded and a 6-character reign mark was permitted. The only time a Kangxi Imperial mark appeared without the circles was on the peach bloom wares and certain other scholar's table items and it is always 6 characters written either in two horizontal lines or two vertical columns. Some Imperial pieces decorated at the Palace Workshops that were made late in the reign had a four character reign mark, but they are always enclosed by a double square and are almost always written in over glaze blue enamel.

Copies and later marks: All four character Imperial REIGN Kangxi marks written inside double circles or without circles are replicas. Items made in the manner of or style of Kangxi in the 19th C many times do have four character reign marks. This makes it easy to tell at a glance in many cases whether the piece is really from the Kangxi period. Some of these porcelains are very close in design to the originals but if you compare them to genuine Kangxi wares the paste, glaze, footrim and the blue is different. We refer to all of these as "copies" even if they are not absolute replicas because in most instances they were meant to deceive, particularly during the Guangxu reign.

Crude attempts to mimic Imperial marks are sometimes found on minyao wares but generally this is not the case on export wares, as most bear no marks.

572. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi period made". C. 1900-1910.

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401. Kangxi Nian Zuo - "Kangxi Period Made". Early 20th Century.
336. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi period made", c. 1920.

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797. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Made". Early 20th century, c 1920

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675. Mark: Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi period made" but c. 1880.

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732. Mark: Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi period made" but c. 1900.

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676. Mark: Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi period made" but from the Guangxu period, c. 1890.

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90. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi period made"
332. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Made", 1960's.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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273. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Made", ca. 1960.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

Click this to see a large picture of two dishes and marks # 272 and # 273.

259. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Made", ca. 1970.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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331. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Made", 1960's.
This dish is decorated in Hong Kong and the date suggested by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.
The line "ABRIGADO EM MACAO" (Greetings From Macao) mark could be a tax or export consideration.
412. Lidded Jar. Kangxi Yu Zhi - "Made to the order of the Emperor Kangxi". Late 20th century.
695. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi period made", probably c. 1960's

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571. Mark: Da Qing Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing dynasty Kangxi period made". 20th century.

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816. Mark: Da Qing Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing dynasty Kangxi period made". Probably 1890-1910

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780. Mark: Da Qing Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing dynasty Kangxi period made". Mark with typical "hollow line". Date probably first decades of the 20th century, 1900-1930.

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1235. Mark: Da Qing Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing dynasty Kangxi period made". Probably after post Cultural Revolution, second half 20th century.

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322. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi period made". Mid 19th century to possibly early 20th century.
1221. Tea canister, mark: Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make". Date: During or post cultural revolution, 1970-80's

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"Jiaqing" (1796-1820)
760. Mark: Da Qing Jiaqing Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Jiaqing period (1796-1820) made". Inside the neck a sticker saying, Made in Hong Kong. Tentative date c. 1960-70's. Beside that the sticker indicates Hong Kong, this mark seems to be uniquely connected to Macao. See also "Macao Style" marks.

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251. Mark: Da Qing Jiaqing Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Jiaqing period (1796-1820) made" but probably mid to late 20th century.
593. Mark: Da Qing Jiaqing Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Jiaqing period (1796-1820) made" but c. 1980-90.

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Jingdezhen Zhi (Made in Jingdezhen)
8. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Made in Jingdezhen Made. Date: Republic of China (1911-48).
252. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Made in Jingdezhen Made. Date: c. 1995.
111. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Made in Jingdezhen Made. Date: c. 1950.

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92. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Made in Jingdezhen Made. Date: 1950-70 ?
96. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Made in Jingdezhen Made. Date: c. 1970
122. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Made in Jingdezhen Made. Date: bought new in Jingedezhen 1992. Underglaze bl/w eggshell bowl.
878. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Made in Jingdezhen Made. Date: 1950 or later.

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1101. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Jingdezhen Make. The characters are written in traditional Chinese and perhaps infer for this reason the piece is older than the mid-50's, but traditional characters are often used in mainland China for shop names, invitations, calligraphy, etc. Date: Contemporary.

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Zhong Guo "Zhong Yi" Jingdezhen (China "Zhong Yi" factory, Jingdezhen)
121. Zhong Guo (China) Zhong Yi (factory name) Jingdezhen. Underglaze bl/w eggshell bowl bought in Jingdezhen 1992.


Qianlong" Six Characters / Double Frame
261. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made", 1970.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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65. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - Blue and white chinese export porcelain replica/emulation. Note the crackled glaze. Late 20th/early 21th century.
1030. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - (Chinese emperor Qianlong period make) but unfortunately not of the period. It is a Chinese new decorative ware not older than the 1970s.
85. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Probably 20th century.
339. "Qianlong Nian Zhi" "Qianlong Period Made". Modern mark, after 1960.
340. "Qianlong Nian Zhi" "Qianlong Period Made". Modern mark, after 1960.
247. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Tentative period 1950-75.
317. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made", 1960.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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419. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi, "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Mid 20th Century. Marks with this wide frame is likely to be from after the 1960's and should be compared to the Macao style marks.

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602. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi Date 1940's before 1949.
Cf., HA van Oort, pp. 165-167.

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373. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Porcelain with this "hard" color scheme seems to be contemporary with the influece from Russia in the 1950's. Note the black top rim ruyi border, cf. #261 (1970) and #501 (1966-76). Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966).

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168. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period Made". (Da Qing omitted) Tentative date: Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1950's.
733. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Tentative date: 1960's. period.

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Jurentang
Research indicates that "Juren Tang" in Zhongnanhai was the building where Yuan Shikai lived and where he had his office around 1915. Guo Baochang, an antique dealer with a good relation to the court, was appointed to arrange for imperial Hongxian wares being made in 1916. What really came out of this is still debated. One opinion is that no pieces bearing the Hongxian mark is of the period, the only possibly genuine mark of the period being "Jurentang", if any.
418. "Jurentang" mark. Republic period. Family tradition has it that this vase "was originally made for an imperial or high level government official". The vase could be traced back in the family to mid 1920's-mid 1940's.

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328. "Jurentang" 1980 or later.
329. "Jurentang" mark 1960 or later. Interestingly enough the front page of the plate seems to be from 1900-1920 while the foot rim and the flowers scrolls on the back side of the dish gives it away as 1960's or later too.

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"Made in China"
From 1919 "CHINA" was to be replaced by "Made in China" on all Chinese export to the US. Even if "CHINA" continued to be used for a long time, we can still assume that no marks with the full text "Made in China" is from before 1919 and more likely to be from the second WW or later.
494. Late 20th century. Tentative date 1980s.

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290. Mid 20th century, probably 1960's.
631. Dated in the inscription to 1936. Mark: Made in China

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1105. Mark: Made in China, tentative date 1930s, possible slightly before WWII.

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560. "Hand-painted decoration, Made in China" Probably 1960's.
442. "Hand painted Made in China", Mid 20 century, probably 1960's or later.
MING DYNASTY MARKS - but not of the period

TYPE CHART MING DYNASTY PERIOD MARKS AVAILABLE HERE >>

All marks in this section are somehow referring to the Ming dynasty. They are with no exceptions from after the Ming dynasty and up until today in some cases. Real MING marks that actually are of the period, plus a type chart, is available here >>
107. Da Ming Chenghua Nian Zhi (Great Ming Chenghua Period Made). Late 19th century, probably around 1860's.
673. "Chenghua Nian Zhi" (Chenghua Period Made). Probably Guangxu (1875-1908) period.

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275. "Chenghua Nian Zhi" (Chenghua Period Made). Early to mid 20th Century.

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532. "Chenghua Nian Zhi", Before 1910, probably Guangxu period (1875-1908)

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396. Xuande Nian Zhi ( Xuande Period Made). Second quarter 20th Century.
301. Da Ming Chenghua Nian Zhi - "Ming Dynasty Chenghua Period Made". This is possibly from the 1990's. After Simon Kwan's exhibition of 20th century high quality porcelain even late pieces were immitated and this might be one of them.

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625. Yongle Nian Zhi - "Yongle Period Made", but modern - c. 1990's. The bowl possibly made in Thailand.
773. Yongle Nian Zhi - "Yongle Period Made", but modern - c. 1990's. The bowl possibly made in Thailand.

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383. Mark: Yong Le Nian Zhi - "Yong Le Period Made".
265. "Yongle Nian Zhi" (Yongle Period Made). Mid 20th Century. (The bowl surprisingly comfortable to drink tea out of.)

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300. "Da Ming Chenghua Nian Zhi". Probably last quarter of 20th century.

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491. Mark Da Ming Chenghua Nian Zhi but probably 1990's.

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492. Da Ming Nian Zhu - Great Ming Period Made. Modern ?

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496. Da Ming Jiajing Nian Zhu - "Great Ming Jiajing (1522-1566) Period Made". Modern.

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372. Chongzhen Nian Zhi, "Chongzhen (1628-44) Period Made". The mark appears as written by somebody who do not know Chinese even if the "Nian" character is good. Uncertain date.


PIN - 品 - "Treasure / Product"
400. Bowl with 'rice grain' decoration. Mark Zhonghua / Zhen Pin "The Chinese Nation Treasure". Early 20th Century.
1184. Mark Zhonghua / Zhen Pin 珍品 "The Chinese Nation Treasure". Early 20th Century.

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426. Base: Da Xin / Zhen Pin "Da Xin Precious product".
Inside: Da Xin Gong Si "Da Xin Department Store", Huan Qiu Shi Pin "Global Food Product".

    Da Xin Department Store was one of the biggest and most prestigious department stores at the time, like Harrods and Selfridges of London, with shop in, I believe in Shanghai, HK and Singapore. Large department stores in Shanghai were first established by foreign investors. After 1916, local companies established successively four department stores at Nanjing Lu - Wings, Sincere, Xin Xin, and Da Xin -- each of which covered an area over ten-thousand square meters. The stores strove to compete with one another by enhancing both quantity and quality of commodity, services and facilities. A new style of consumption was thus formed. Shopping or window shopping on weekends became a popular life style in the city. Today Da Xin, now "Number One Department Store" is the largest department store in China.

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508. Jiangxi / Sincere / Chu Pin "Jiangxi Sincere Production" (2nd Quarter 20th C.)

    The first official Hong Kong Schools Sports Day was held on 29th Nov 1933. In the prize donation inventory, it was recorded three of the Four Super Department Stores had made a contribution. They were Sincere, Da Xin, Zhonghua Bai Huo. ( The remaining company is likely to be "Wing On")
    Source: HK Central Roads and Streets History, Joint Publishing (HK) Co Ltd, 1989.

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518. Mao Yuan Chu Pin - "Mao Yuan" product, where "Mao Yuan" is the artist 's name. Possibly 1940-50's.

    The additional characters on the bowl are, horizontal from right : Guan Jia Yi Pin - Official Title increased by one rank.
    Vertical: Jiangxi (surname) / Mao Yuan / Ke - Jiangxi Province (surname) / Mao Yuan / Guest.
    As for the "Ke = guest", many porcelain painters tried to make a living in Jiangxi during the Republic period, they came from other provinces and hoped they did not have to stay too long. They liked to address themselves as Guest Artists, showing their home coming desire.

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384. Qiang Yi Tong / Zhen Cang Pin "Qiang Yi Hall Precious Treasure".
130. Yu Yao / Zhen Pin "Imperial Kiln Precious Products". For reference, Zhen appeared in #116, Pin appeared in #68.
68. Jiangxi / Wan Yi Fa / Chu Pin "Jiangxi Province Products, Wan Yee Fa Company". Mid 20th century.
330. Jiangxi / Min Zheng Xing / Chu Pin - "Jiangxi Province / Min Zheng Xing (name) / Products". Nanchang. Second quarter of 20th c. before 1949.

    This mark was used by Mr. Min Zheng Xing (name) in his porcelain shop in Nanchang, Jiangxi province. At this time the Wa Lee Factory was still in Nanchang. In 1947 the Wa Lee Factory moved to Canton "near the end of the Yi De Road" and in 1949 moved on to Hong Kong. Meanwhile Min Zheng Xing remained in Jiangxi. Around 1951 to 1952 Min Zheng Xing "who also was an accomplished porcelain painter" travelled to HK once, trying to sell his Nanchang factory porcelains. Mr. Kung "treated him and took him around, but with little success since the times were difficult in HK too". (Source: Simon Ng interview w Mr Kung, HK 2001.)

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429. Mark: Jiangxi / Xia Yong Xing / Chu Pin "Jiangxi Xia Yong Xing Production".

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Qianlong" Six Characters / Double Frame
261. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made", 1970.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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65. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - Blue and white chinese export porcelain replica/emulation. Note the crackled glaze. Late 20th/early 21th century.
1030. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - (Chinese emperor Qianlong period make) but unfortunately not of the period. It is a Chinese new decorative ware not older than the 1970s.
85. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Probably 20th century.
339. "Qianlong Nian Zhi" "Qianlong Period Made". Modern mark, after 1960.
340. "Qianlong Nian Zhi" "Qianlong Period Made". Modern mark, after 1960.
247. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Tentative period 1950-75.
317. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made", 1960.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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419. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi, "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Mid 20th Century. Marks with this wide frame is likely to be from after the 1960's and should be compared to the Macao style marks.

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602. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi Date 1940's before 1949.
Cf., HA van Oort, pp. 165-167.

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373. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Porcelain with this "hard" color scheme seems to be contemporary with the influece from Russia in the 1950's. Note the black top rim ruyi border, cf. #261 (1970) and #501 (1966-76). Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966).

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168. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period Made". (Da Qing omitted) Tentative date: Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1950's.
733. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Tentative date: 1960's. period.

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QING DYNASTY

TYPE CHART QING DYNASTY PERIOD MARKS AVAILABLE HERE >>

The best way to organize Qing dynasty seems for now to be by style. Seal marks are in the style of a seal and not difficult to tell. Song marks are in a hand written form and in Song's style of writing, then there is Ming, Qing, Republic, modern and after Cultural Revolution style of writings etc, this is a most specialized and difficult subject, and no books has as far as we know dared to touch on this yet, but being a true Viking I'll go about doing this soon, with the help of my Asian friends, who often can read even very complicated texts and seals.


Yongzheng
93. Yongzheng Nian Zhi - "Yongzheng period made". Underglaze blue hand painted seal mark. Mid 20th century, high quality.
167. Yongzheng Nian Zhi - "Yongzheng period made". Red rubberstamped seal mark. 20th century.
739. Mark: Da Qing Yongzheng Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Yongzheng period made" Underglaze blue hand painted seal mark. 20th century. This one I am very uncertain about since I have only got these pictures to look at. The decoration as such on this vase could be Guangxu (early 20th century) but the vase and its mark looks at most a decade old to me. The enamels also seems from the picture to be similar to the ones used in Macao, in the 1970's. Kindly notice that this is my personal opinions only and THIS IS VERY DIFFICULT to say anything about based on pictures alone. Still, this mark is also included in the Macao section until further until we have seen more of this type and can date it with a greater amount of certainty.

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708. Mark: Da Qing Yongzhen Nian Zhi - Yongcheng period made, but probably 1990-2000.


Qianlong" Four Characters / Double Frame
260. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period, Made", 1970.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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335. "Qianlong Nian Zhi" "Qianlong Period Made". From the 'realistic' look of the decoration despite the small scale of the available picture, I would like to suggest a date to around 1950s on this piece.
1089. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Qianglong Period Made, early second half of 20th century. The crisp and slightly 'naf' style of the decoration is charateristic of the period immediately before the cultural revolution.

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414. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Qianglong Period Made. Second half of 20th century. Due to the shaky lines in the decoration I would even like to suggest a date on this vase to around the 1970s or later.

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1073. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Qianglong Period Made. Second half of 20th century. Due to the shaky lines in the decoration I would even like to suggest a date on this vase to around the 1970s or later.

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311. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - c. 1990-95.
253. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - c. 1990-95.
305. "Qianlong Yu Zhi" where Yu is, by the order of the Emporor. (Made to the order of Emporer Qianlong). This mark is in the style of Qing Guan pieces. Probably c. 1960-80. See also # 292.

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843. "Qianlong Yu Zhi" where Yu is, by the order of the Emporor. (Made to the order of Emporer Qianlong). This mark is in the style of Qing Guan pieces. Probably c. 1960-80.

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947. "Qianlong Yu Zhi" where Yu is, by the order of the Emporor. (Made to the order of Emporer Qianlong). This mark is in the style of Qing Guan pieces. Probably c. 1960-80.

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193. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period Made". Stamped seal mark. Mid 20th century
3. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period Made". Export seal mark. "MADE IN CHINA". In the smudged area between "MA(DE IN) CHINA" and the seal mark, there seems to be the beginning of "Zhongguo (.. Jingdezhen China?)" which would indicate a date from the 1950's until present. Mid 20th century.

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420. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period Made". Early to mid 20th century.
304. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made". Stamped export seal mark with "MADE IN CHINA". The "poisonious glaze" warning label seems to indicate a date after 1970.


Qianlong" Six Characters / Single Frame
313. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made"
Information gained by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong, this is decorated in Hong Kong around 1960.

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1078. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made"
Probably decorated in Hong Kong around 1960.

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"Qianlong Nian Zhi" Four Character / Single Frame
315. "Qianlong Nian Zhi", Close resemblance to mark # 314, enamels added in Hong Kong 1960 by Wa Lee Company.

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316. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Enamels added in Hong Kong, 1960 by Wa Lee Company.

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320. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Enamels added in Hong Kong, 1960 by Wa Lee Company.

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318. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Enamels added in Hong Kong, 1960 by Wa Lee Company.

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"Da Qing Qianlong" Four Character / Single Frame
So far I have not seen any mark of this type that seems to be older than the early 1970's
134. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong - "Great Qing Qianlong"
382. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong - "Great Qing dynasty, Qianlong period". Late 20th century. The mark appears to be next to identical to those used in Hong Kong in the 1960-70's, but in this case, in underglaze blue.
758. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong - "Great Qing Qianlong". End of 20th century.

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Qianlong" Six Characters / No Frame
77. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Gu Gong Fu Zhi (Palace Museum Replica Producation), Before 1990.
172. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Mid 20th century or later.
281. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Plate probably from the 1930-40's period.
413. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made".
297. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Probably 3rd quarter of 20th century.

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282. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi. Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Black gilded lidded jar, tentative date 1950's-60's
184. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi. Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Modern Chinese porcelain spoon. Date: Late 1960's to c. 1990.
513. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi. Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Modern Chinese porcelain spoon. Date: Late 1960's to c. 1990.
403. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi, Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Date: Late 1960's to c. 1990.
377. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi, Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Date: Late 1960's to c. 1990.
914. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi, Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Made". Date: Late 1960's to c. 1990.

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254. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Ca. 1990-95.


"Qianlong Yu Zhi" Four Character / Single Frame
310. Mark: Qianlong Yu Zhi - "Made to the order of the Emperor Qianlong".

1990-2000.



"Qianlong Nian Zhi" Four Character / No Frame
248. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made".
255. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made".
422. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made".
198. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made".
397. Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made". Mid 20th Century.
132. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made".Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made". Probably early 20th century.
87. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made". The special calligraphy of this mark should be compared to # 134, 115 and 263. For the time being I would like to suggest that this mark is a Hong Kong mark from the 1960's.
131. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made". Probably "Probably early Republic period".
405. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Made". Late 20th century.

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"Xianfeng" (1851-61)
918. Mark: Xian Feng Nian Zhi, meaning: "Made in the Year (or Reign) of the Xianfeng". Calligraphy written from left to right in the modern way. Writing from left to right in a single line (along with the general use of European-American grammar structure) occurs after the mid-1950's in mainland China alone. Strong bodied Chinese blue/white plate, 25.3 cm diam. The foot has a hole for hanging. Date: probably 1970's.

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"Tongzhi" (1862-74)
851. Dish fencai decoration on celadon ground. Mark: Unclear mark probably saying Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi, meaning: Great Qing Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Made. Date: Second half of the 19th century.

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64. Bowl. Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi, meaning: Great Qing Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Made. Date: Second half of the 19th century.

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1066. Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi, meaning: Great Qing Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Made. Date: Second half of the 19th century possible of the period.

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489. Bowl. Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Made". 1860-1910, this mark possibly be of the period

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139. Lids. Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi - Great Qing Tongzhi Period Made. Probably 1880 to 1930.

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269. Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi period made". For the moment uncertain date. The general look of the mark reminds somewhat about #107 but the use of a single frame seems to indicate mid 20th century period.
298. Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi (1862-74) period made". Tentative date: first decade of the 20th century.

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287. Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi (1862-74) period made". Color and calligraphy suggestst that this mark could quite possible be of the period (1862-74). Unfortunately we don't have a picture of the piece.
706. Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Made". Probably Guangxu (1875-1908) period or somewhat later.

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754. Mark: Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi Period Made". According to the caligraphy this was made by Cheung Wen-tai in the winter of 1909. Also, it is meant to congratulate people on a bright and promising career etc... a promotion, maybe.

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Decorated in Taiwan
185. Mark: Da Tong Yao, Taiwan, (Da Tong Kiln, Taiwan). Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.


CHINA (Zhong Guo Zhi Zao)
697. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao "China Made". The vase is a Chinese copy of Japanese Satsuma style moriage. Tentative date 1950-75.

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101. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made).
411. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made). Mid 20th century.
503. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made). Probably Hong Kong c. 1950's

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267. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made). This mark is unique so far in that the characters are drawn one by one inside a frame. Tentative date 1950-75.
501. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao - "China Made". The zhong character is drawn as a bow and arrow. The decoration on this bowl is printed in a horrible quality and surely dates to the Cultural Revolution period (1966-1976).

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702.Zhong Guo Zhi Zao - "China Made". Probably 1975-1990.

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783. "Made in China", Date c. 1980-1990

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81. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China made)


CHINA (Zhong Guo Zhi Zao)
1029. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Make). Basically "new", possible period (1970's-2000).

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CHINA (Zhong Guo Zhi Zao) WESTERN EXPORT
5. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made)
967. Mark: Made in China. Second half of the 20th century.

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28. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made). In this mark "Zhi Zao" is used which would rather translate as make - something new, to produce something out of raw material- while the more common "Zhi Zuo" could be translated as the more profane manufacture. On Chinese "Satsuma" copy basically "new", possible period (1970's-2000).

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852. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made). In this mark "Zhi Zao" is used which would rather translate as make - something new, to produce something out of raw material- while the more common "Zhi Zuo" could be translated as the more profane manufacture. Date: "Off the shelf" February 2004.

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1035. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made). Tentative interpretation of this mark is 'Universal Porcelain Factory, Phoenix "H" brand, production unit/line -9-' date 1980-90.
54. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made)
183. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made). Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
82. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China made)
178. Zhong Guo Zhi Zao (China Made). Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon. The similarity to mark 260. Dish. "Qianlong Nian Zhi", seems to indicate a date around 1970.
502. Zhong Guo - "China". C. 1950-1970
189. Zhong Guo - "China". Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon. C. 1970 and later.


Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi - China Jingdezhen made (<- R to L)

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In around 1953 to 54, almost all the factories in Jiangxi were merged into larger units, each made up by ten to fifteen previously independent smaller factories. The use of alphabetic characters and numbers in the marks also seems to have started around this time. Long time porcelain merchant in Hong Kong, Mr. Kung, was when asked by Simon Ng on this, of the opinion that =09= and similar, were names assigned to each of the factories in Jingdezhen by the Communist Party. When asked if a factory could have more than one number, he also said that as far as he knew there were only one number for one factory. Now this doesn't match with reality since in long runs of the same pattern there seems to be different characters appearing at random. Recently I have also been asking around some in Jingdezhen, and the latest info on these letters are that the mark "=D=" etc doesn't have any meaning. They were simply put onto export wares to look nice. This really matches with the lack of system we have noticed so far and can possibly be true for the last decades, but was it so in the beginning? The research contiues. One possibility is that the marks did have an organisational importance in the beginning but that the marks after some time got garbeled.
235, 236. Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi - China Jingdezhen Made, factory # D
519. Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi - China Jingdezhen Made, factory # D

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1189. Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi - China Jingdezhen Made, factory # 21

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Zhongguo Jingdezhen CHINA =#=
75. Mark: Zhongguo Jingdezhen, CHINA, =D= - China Jingdezhen. Mark from a square flask with 4 landscapes by Wang Yeting (1884 - 1942), one of the "eight friends of Zhushan", dated 1937. It is unlikely that the date of the painting in this case matches the mark which should date to the mid 1950's or later.
271. Zhongguo Jingdezhen - China Jingdezhen. Mark from two gilt on coral ground dishes. Dated by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong, to the 1950's. Similar dishes are still being made.

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274. Zhongguo Jingdezhen - China Jingdezhen. Dated by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong, to 1980, which seems like a large jump from the very similar # 271 above.

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567. Zhongguo Jingdezhen - China Jingdezhen. Porcelain vase made in "Jingdezhen" in 1968 to mark the Chinese cultural revolution, led by chairman Mao. Decorated with Tian-An-Men Square and Hua Biao surrounded by a group of sun flowers. Text on Balloons with ribbons are "Chairman Mao lives long life", "the Communist Party lives long life" and Mao-Zhu-Xi-Wan-Sui "Chairman Mao's revolutionary route have success and live long life".

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Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen, EXPORT (L to R ->)
245. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. Factory =01=.
203. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. Factory =03=.
196. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. Factory =07=.
200. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. Factory =08=.
258, 201. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. Lidded tea cup, ca 1970. Factory =09=.

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1076. Zhong Guo Jingdezhen Zhi - "China Jingdezhen made". Possibly modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.

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526. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. Factory =16=.
207. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. Factory =21=.
525. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. Factory =31=.
202. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. Factory =42=.
581. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. Factory =N=.

43, 204. Zhongguo Jingdezhen China Jingdezhen. This "China Jingdezhen" mark of good quality and with the factory numbers or letters taken away are the currently used in export porcelain found in the shops today. I would prefer to date these marks as just "modern" and unlikely to be much older than the 1990's. However it has previously been indicated they could be as early as from the 1950's I have seen no proofs of that


Zhong Guo Jingdezhen Zhi (China Jingdezhen made)
103. Zhong Guo Jingdezhen Zhi (China Jingdezhen made). Possibly modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.
63. Zhong Guo Jingdezhen Zhi - "China Jingdezhen made". Possibly modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.

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80. Zhong Guo Jingdezhen Zhi (China Jingdezhen made). Possibly modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.
249. Zhong Guo Jingdezhen Zhi (China Jingdezhen made). Possibly modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.
1248. Zhong Guo Jingdezhen Zhi (China Jingdezhen made). Modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.

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Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi


Jiangxi Min Ci (Jiangxi Reputable Porcelain)
157. Mark: Jiangxi min ci "Jiangxi reputable porcelain". Tentative date c mid 20th century.
161. Jiangxi Min Ci (Jiangxi Reputable Porcelain). 20th century, similar mark have been found on a vase likely to bear an authenthic date of 1935.
210. Mark: Jiangxi min ci "Jiangxi reputable porcelain". The scrolls on this bowl are clearly hand painted. Tentative date c 1935.
1067. Mark: Jiangxi min ci "Jiangxi reputable porcelain". Hard to put a date on but looking at the flower border of the neck it has an inventive yet simplified decoration. Tentative date c 1950s.

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Jingdezhen Ci Ye Gong Si Chu Pin
(Jingdezhen Porcelain Company Production)
158. Jingdezhen Ci Ye Gong Si Chu Pin (Jingdezhen Porcelain Company Production). Mark probably somehow related to # 169.
216. Jiangxi Jingdezhen Chu Pin (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Production)


UNITED WILSON
United Wilson Porcelain Factory, Unit A-H, 9th Floor, H.K. Industrial Building 444-452 Des Voeux Road, West Hong Kong, China. Factory still in operation.
942. Mark: "UW". Mark used by United Wilson Porcelain Factory. Factory still in operation.
639. Mark: UW. Used by United Wilson, Hong Kong. Porcelain manufactured in China. Date: Modern, probably 1990's.

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"WONG LEE" (Unconfirmed)
Modern Chinese porcelain mark said to be made by the "Wong Lee" (WL) company. They are not copies of anything, it is just a company in China who is making pieces on the style of Napoleon III. Always with crackled grounds and with bronze (ormulu) fittings. A rumor that has it that this mark should be of "William Lowe", is incorrect. There are no similarities in type of wares or with any marks used by Wm Lowe. The date 1895 is unrelated to the date of the piece but is among other things the date of the end of the war between Japan and China. The exact whereabouts of this WL company is unknown until further.
1052. Mark: "Wong Lee" (WL) company, found on porcelain in the style of Napoleon III. Date: Modern, probably 2000-2005.

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ROYAL SATSUMA
633. "MADE IN CHINA SATSUMA". Chinese copy of Japanese "Satsuma" ware. Late 20th century.

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635. "HANDPAINIED (sic) ROYAL SATSUMA". Zhong Guo To Ci Jin Pin meaning 'China Pottery Porcelain Fine Products'. Chinese copy of Japanese "Satsuma" ware. After 1980.

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21. "SATSUMA MADE IN CHINA". Modern mark on a copy of Japanese "Satsuma" ware.


RECENT ADDITIONS / UNSORTED
MISC.
389. "Niu" Chinese surname, possibly the name of the artist. Probably 1950's

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99. Artists name seal. Ca 1930, eggshell porcelain.
182. Factory or brand name on modern Chinese porcelain. Probably 1985-90.

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188. Xiang Shan (Elephant Hill Brand). Elephant Hill is a popular tourist attraction in Guilin, Guangxi Province. Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
627. Late 20th century.
1034. Mark: Zhong Guo Xin Hua meaning "China, New, Chemical Factory". The "S.H" (in green) is likely the hanyu pinyin acronym of "Xin Hua". Last decades of the 20th C.

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707. Zhong Guo Longquan - "China Longquan", probably referring to the Celadon type glaze made famous by the Longquan kilns in Zhejiang province of South-Eastern China. Modern ware, late 20th century.

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175. Jingde Gu Yao - "Jingde Ancient Kiln". Modern, blue and white lidded tea bowl. C. 1990.
1251. Small vase, coral red enamels with stamped gilt decoration. Height 11 cm. Mark: Wan Yu. The mark shows the characters for (1) plaything/to play and (2) jade. The meaning is rather abstract, but can perhaps be translated as "jade trinket" or "antique porcelain as fine as jade". The mark first appeared in Kangxi but has been used well into the 20th century. Date: Late Qing to Early Republic.

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34. Wan Yu. The mark shows the characters for (1) plaything/to play and (2) jade. The meaning is rather abstract, but can perhaps be translated as "jade trinket" or "antique porcelain as fine as jade". The mark first appeared in Kangxi but has been used well into the 20th century.
1205. Plate, mark: Wan Yu. The mark shows the characters for (1) plaything/to play and (2) jade. The meaning is rather abstract, but can perhaps be translated as "jade trinket" or "antique porcelain as fine as jade". The mark first appeared in Kangxi but has been used well into the 20th century.
1206. Plate, mark: Wan Yu. The mark shows the characters for (1) plaything/to play and (2) jade. The meaning is rather abstract, but can perhaps be translated as "jade trinket" or "antique porcelain as fine as jade". The mark first appeared in Kangxi but has been used well into the 20th century. This mark appears to be applied with a rubber stamp, underglaze blue decoration transfer printed, possible modern.

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326. Tao Yu Zhen Cang - "Pottery and Jade Precious Treasure". Possibly late 20th C.
425. Yu - "Jade" (=Precious Treasure.) Possibly late 19th C.

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116, 120. Mark: Ya Wan Zhen Cang (Delicate Collectable Precious Treasure). Private Collector's or factory mark on porcelain figures in 18th-19th century style. Mid 20th century. Guanzhou or Hong Kong style late enamels, fencai.
1229. Plate. Mark: Ya Wan Zhen Cang (Delicate Collectable Precious Treasure). Post Mao probably 1960-1980's or even later. Guanzhou or Hong Kong style late enamels, fencai.

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170. "Duo Haan Juo Zhi" Made for/by the House of Plenty Leisure. Modern replica of early 18th century blue and white porcelain, ca. 1999/2000.
176. Mark on blue and white spoon, possibly 1880-1930.
186. Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
379. Stamped mark on modern porcelain figure.
380. "Qian Men, Quan Ju De" (Front Gate, Quan Ju De ( Restaurant )). Quan Ju De is a symbol of Old Peking, the famous Peking Duck shop opened in 1864. Front Gate, the city gate - was built in Yuan and original named Li Zheng Men. During Ming it was renamed to Zheng Yang Men which name has been kept until now, more commonly called Qian Men.
91. Kangxi style Artemisia leaf, c. 1950.

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587. "Artemisia" leaf mark. Originally common under Kangxi period but this stiff version is later, probably early 20th century.

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390. "Li Rong Tai hao", "mark of Li Rongtai" (Wade-Giles: Li Jung-t'ai).
430. Yong Qing Chang Chun Cerebrating Forever Endless Spring. Da Ya Zhai - Grand Elegant Court. Copy of porcelain made for the Empress Dowager Cixi, this bowl probably from the Guangxu period.

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436. Most likely Japanese porcelain with thin, light, shallow footrim. Entirely different from most HK decorated pieces.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Dated by porcelain merchant Mr. Kung, Hong Kong to the 1960's.

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481. Wang Qi Name Seal copy of "Wang Qi", one of the Eight Friends of Zhu Shan, specializing in figure drawings and Running Calligraphy. Modern, c. 1990-2000

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517. Bing Shen Qiu Rou - "Bing Shen ( Year ) Autumn Month". Most likely year matching "Bing Shen" are 1896. Xiao Shan Zuo - Xiao Shan ( Artist's name ) Painted.
Base red mark : Gao Bo Sheng Hao - Gao Bo Sheng Company.

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520. Zhou Shun Xing Zao - " Zhou Shun Xing (Company) Made". Same as our #27

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521. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong (1736 - 1795) Period Made".

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522. Cheng Yi Tai Zao - "Cheng Yi Tai Made." Same as our #17 /18.

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523. JI Yu Bao Ding Zhi Zhen - "Treasure of Cherished Jade and Precious Ding". Kangxi period, ca 1700.

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524. Gao Po, China. "Gao Po" is probably the name of a town. It is unclear though, in which way Gao Po is related to the porcelain.
583. Late 20th century.

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601. Jie Zhu Zhu Ren Zuo - The Master of Jie Zhu Made. Name Mark or Collector's Mark, first appeared in the Daoguang (1821-50) period. Likely date for this mark is mid 20th century.

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769. Mark: Hua Ping Tang Zhi - "Hua ("China", "Magnificent") Ping ("even", "level", "democratic", surname )Tang ("Hall") made". Submitted picture very small but if the enamels are very thin the decoration is probably printed and the tureen should date to 1975-2000.
605. Date: Probably 1970 or later.

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926. Date: Probably 1970 or later.

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1094. Date: Probably 1970 or later.

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617. Decorated i a combination of mille fleur and famille noire. Guangxu period / Early Republic, c. 1900-1930's

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618. Wu Feng Ji Fei - "Five Phoenix Together Fly / Rise". Possibly early Republic c. 1920's.

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443. Wei Yi Zhai - "The Singular (one and only) Studio", 4th quarter 20th century..

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713. Modern porcelain figure. Signature of the Artist: "...hand made by Lam Wai Tung". Late 20th century.

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718. Qin Xiang Xing Zhi - "Qin Xiang Xing ( factory ) Made". Late 20th century, c. 1960-70.

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719. Aspiration Mark Zhao Cai Jin Bao - "Inviting in Wealth and Treasure", c. 1890-1910.

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729. Xu Fu Xing Hao - "Xu" family or company. Tentative date 1870's or slightly later.

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744.

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745. "Good luck" vase. China, mid 20th century.

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751. "Made in China", Transfer printed decoration. 1970's?

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766.

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782. Mark: Yau Kee '29' Hao, tentative translation "'Yau Kee' Factory Pattern number 29". Date c. 1960's. Possibly Hong Kong decorated.

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662. Hair's oil jar. Dated 1919.

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796. Toilet table box. Decoration: 'Qilin delivering a son'. Compare dated mark #662. Tentative date c. 1920

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1070. Bowl. Tentative date c. 1920.

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823. Late 19th century/early 20th century. Made by Bo Gu (the name of the artist?) of Heng Feng Tang (name of the Porcelain Shop).

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803.
879. Mark: Jiangxi Yuan Yu Hua, meaning: Drawn by Yuan Yu Hua in Jiangxi Province. The bird is commonly known as a 'White headed Granny'. The caption says 'Prosperity unto the old age'. The flower is likely peony, which is the flower of prosperity in Chinese. A similar piece with identical caption is in Dated Porcelain secrion, mark #102, with a signed date of 1914. Tentative date of this dish: around 1925.
897. Mark: "Hand Painted Porcelein". Tentative date: Mid 20th century.

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902.

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961. Mark: "XXX Cang", meaning XXX's collection. The XXX is undecipherable. The two-line poem says "Yan Zi Zheng Chun Se, Xiu Qi Lin Qiu Feng", meaning "beautiful pose against spring scene, elegant manner sterning autumn wind" followed by the Porcelain Painter's signature of "Zhong Ming Shi Painted". Tentative date is the 1940s.

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619. Factory mark in red, impressed in the porcelain a four characters "Zhong Guo" (China) mark. 1980-2000

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1059. Seal mark within single frame. Wax seal "jianding" - modern export permit. Uncertain date. Possible new.

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312. Zhou Jun Song ( artist name ) Zhi ( Made ). Xuantong (1909-1912) period.

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This entire marks section would not have been possibly without the dedicated help of Mr. Simon Ng, City University of Hong Kong whose translations and personal efforts in researching the origin and dates of the different marks is and has been an invaluable resource.

This section was originally initiated by a donation of marks from the collection of Karl-Hans Schneider, Euskirchen, Germany in July 2000. The section have since then been greatly extended by several contributors such as Michaela Russel, Australia, Cordelia Bay, USA, Walt Brygier, USA, Bonnie Hoffmann, Harmen Lensink and Simon Ng, Hong Kong. Readers are invited to supply any information and further marks you might have.

All material submitted by visitors and published anywhere on this site are and remain the copyrighted property of the submitter and appears here by permission of the owner, which can be revoked at any time. All expressed opinions are my personal, based on photos and the owners submitted descriptions, and are not to be used for any financial or commercial decisions but for educational and personal interest only.

Web page © Jan-Erik Nilsson, 2000-2008.