Gotheborg.com - The Antique Chinese Porcelain Collectors Page

Chinese Porcelain Marks

Dated Chinese Porcelain

This is a list of Chinese porcelain with dates in their inscriptions. Most dates in the inscriptions are given as Chinese cyclical dates which are repeated every 60th years. Without a reference to the reigning emperor, it is possible to by mistake move the piece 60 years back or forward in time.

The modernization of China by scholars, teachers and students alike started in late Guangxu (1875-1908) period, around 1900, along with Dr Sun's revolution. As of January 1, 1912 the Gregorian calendar was adopted by the nascent Republic of China for official business. The status of the Gregorian calendar between about 1916 and 1921 while China was controlled by several competing warlords is uncertain. From about 1921 until 1928 warlords continued to control northern China. Kuomintang who controlled the south of China, probably used the Gregorian calendar.

The 10th of October 1928 the Kuomintang declared a reconstituted Republic of China and also decreed that as of 1th January 1929 everyone must use the Gregorian calendar. The earliest example I have so far on the practice of dating porcelain after the Gregorian calendar is from April that very same year, 1929, in very small characters.

During the Kuomintang period dates also occurs as numbered years of their Republic, from 1929, regarding this as year one. A date as the 29th year of the Republic as in mark #645 should thus indicate 1912 plus 29 years, or 1941. When the Communists gained control of mainland China the 1st of October 1949, they simply continued using the Gregorian calendar, but now numbered the years in the Western manner, beginning with 1949.

Tongzhi (1862-1874) period
1871
1414. Square tea pot. Dated in the calligraphy to 1871. Hand written base mark in iron red with chafered corners Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi "Great Qing Dynasty Tongzhi Period Make". The second line reas "Tongzhi Xin Wei (1871) Mid Autumn (I) made this by the side of the Jingdezhen River... (could be read as, Made at the Changjiang Official Works). Chang Jiang is a district of Jingdezhen but also the river that runs through the city. The artist call himself "the man of the thirty great mountain peaks" and say he have painted the decoration in the style of Ni Yunlin which refers to the Yuan painter Ni Zan. As usual in these wares that refer to famous painters, the style of the decoration bears no connection to Ni Zan, who painted almost exclusively in ink and never painted bird/flower subjects, only an occasional bamboo.

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1873
998. Hat stand with pierced walls. Dated in the calligraphic inscription to the gui you year, i.e. 1873. Hand written base mark in iron red Qi yuanshi zhi meaning "Qi yuan shi made".

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Guangxu (1875-1908) period
1877

Signed: Po Zhang (1877)

1427. Teapot. Square stamped four character basemark "Tongzhi Nian Zhi". The calligraphy signed Po Zhang and dated 1877.

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1429. Serving dish on a raised foot. Dated in the inscription to 1877 (or 1937).

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1878
648. Square vase with elephant's heads handles. Undulating glaze - special dull enamels of a kind of their own. Rough foot rim.

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1881
1430. Brush pot. Signed by the Qianjiang master Zhou Zishan dated 1881. You can take special note on the 'donkey' shape faces of the master and servant. No mark.

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1882
844. Vase with Qianjiang style decoration. Landscape; main colours in pale red, lake green and blue; direct applications of enamels. The Painter's calligraphy acknowledging his painting style and inspiration from Ni Zan, Huang Gongwang's Qianjiang painting friend.

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1884

Signed by: Fang Jia Zhen
Mark: Tongzhi Nian Zhi

988. Narcissus bowl. Signed by: Fang Jia Zhen, Stamped base mark: Tongzhi Nian Zhi "Tongzhi period make". Dated to the jia shen year (1884). For a cup with the same signature, see #1024 (1904).

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1885

Signed by: WANG Zhao Li

992. Small vase. No mark. Dated in the inscription to "yi you" meaning 1885, signed WANG Zhao Li. Height 9 cm.

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1887

Signed by: Li Yanqing

408. Narcissus pot, dated 1887. The four character mark on the base reads Guangxu Nian Zao (1875-1908). Qiangjiang Cai (enamels), calligraphy on the sides reads Painted by Li Yanqing (in) Ding Hai year (1887).

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Text scan 1
Text scan 2
Text scan 3


Donated to Gotheborg.com reference collection by Hans H Müller in 2002.

Signed by: Sheng Men

621. Vase, dated 1887. Painted by Sheng Men (1887). Mark: Guangxu Nian Zhi (1875-1908).

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1025. Vase, dated Ding Hai year meaning, 1887. No base mark.

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1888

Signed by: Li Dao Ren Zuo (Sheng Men)

757. Narcissus bowl. Inscription "Finding pleasure while sailing among the red trees and the green hills"
Wu Ji Qiu Rou - "Wi Ji (1888) Autumn Months". Signed: Li Dao Ren Zuo (Cheng Men).

Red mark seal: Song Sheng.

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1021. Hat stand, height 28 cm. Dated to the wu zi year in the inscription, matching the western date 1888. On the base a stamped square iron red mark Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi meaning "Great Qing Tongzhi Period Make".

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1147. Hat stand. Decorated with a swallow. Dated to the wu zi year (1888) in the inscription. Unclear/illegible stamped mark on the base, possibly six character Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi meaning "Qing Dynasty Tongzhi Period Make".

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1081. Wine warmer. Dated to the wu zi year in the inscription, matching the western date 1888. On the base a stamped square iron red mark Tongzhi Nian Zhi meaning "Tongzhi Period Make".

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1026. Large square vase. Dated to the wu zi year in the inscription, matching the western date 1888. No base mark.

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1120. Teapot. Dated to the wu zi year (1888) in the inscription. No base mark.

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Ian Parker Collection.

1889

Signed by: Zhu Shao Quan

1036. Planter, dated 1889. The calligraphy sides shows, on one side a poem about peonies, and on the other red calligraphy work in ancient script, and in black the Chinese year date for the planter, which is the Jichou year 1889. There is also a seal signature for the artist Shao Quan

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Signed by: Bin Mao

1187. Bowl with lobed sides, dated ji chou in the inscription matching 1889. Red stamped mark Tongzhi Nian Zhi on the base. Text in general translation by David Lane:
shi zai, ji chou, zhongdong, shu yu, Lu Jiang, Zhu Shan, (X) ci, Bin Mao, ti [red seal] At the time of the ji chou year (1899)
in the 11th moon, the second month of winter
written near the River Lu and the Pearl Mountain
'X'th time
Bin Mao (name)
Written by
[seal]

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1890
1018. Square vase with moulded ears. Dated to the geng yin year (1890) in the calligraphy. Underglaze blue mark Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi meaning "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Height 15 cm.

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1005. Vase with elephant's trunk handles. Dated to the geng yin year (1890) in the calligraphy. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao meaning "Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace". Height 10 cm.

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1115. Quite large lidded bowl 'Kamcheng', but missing its lid. No mark, cut foot rim, dated in the inscription to the geng yin year (1890). Decoration mostly unchanged 12 years later as in 1111. Width, diam. 17 cm, Height bottom section as on the picture 4 3/4" (12 cm).

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Gotheborg.com reference collection.

1891
987. Bowl with Quails on rocks, dated 1891. Base mark, hand written mark Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi (Qing dynasty Guangxu period make).

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Signed by: Gao Xin Tian

1013. Square brush holder. height 8.5 cm. Dated in the inscription to the xin mao year, matching the western year of 1891. On the base a reversed stamped Guangxu Nian Zhi seal mark in iron red. Decoration in Wang Ye Ting style, but signed by Gao Xin Tian.

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1199. Tea pot. Dated in the inscription to the xin mao (1891) year. On the base a stamped 'Tongzhi Nian Zhi' seal mark in iron red.

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1892
671. Three lobed bowl, with calligraphy in dull black enamel "Flowers dancing in the breeze, Spring arrives, birds find their tunes", dated "1892". Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace).

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993. Bowl, dated "1892". Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace).

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Signed by artist: Yu Chung painted

1155. Six sided hatstand, dated in the calligraphy to the ren chen year (1892). Height 28 cm. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace). Signed by the artist: Yu Chung painted.

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672. Brush holder, with decoration in Qianjiang cai style of decoration, nice painting and calligraphy in dull black enamel, dated "1892". Mark: Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi period made", but Guangxu period.

Poem loosely translated:
Under water, how deep could affection reach?
Among the flowers, I found my freedom and joy.

Poem signed by "Tse Min".

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1008. Vase, dated in the calligraphy to the ren chen year = 1892. On the base a double ring in underglaze blue; no mark.

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1003. Vase, dated in the inscription to the ren chen year = 1892. On the base a stamped square iron red mark Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi meaning "Great Qing Tongzhi Period Make".

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1019. Square Vase, dated in the calligraphy to the ren chen year = 1892. Height 27 cm. On the base a stamped square iron red mark Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi meaning "Great Qing Tongzhi Period Make".

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1893
1106. Hatstands. Two, with mirrored decoration. Both has the same general text saying wealthy life blessed by the peonies. The practice on signing porcelain seems to be that the painter usually only signed date and name on one piece of a pair. On the bases of both a very faint mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace). Dated in the calligraphy of one of the hat stands, to the gui si year, or 1893.

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Gotheborg.com reference collection.

1010. Bowl. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace). Dated in the calligraphy to the gui si year, 1893.

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1127. Brush pot. Mark: mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace). Dated to the gui si year (1893)

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1031. Hatstand. Red base mark Tongzhi. Dated in the calligraphy to the gui si year, or 1893.

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661. Vase. Mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi (1875-1908), Dated to the gui si year, 1893, which matches with the Guangxu period.

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1894

Mark: Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace)
Signed by: Lei Guang Heng

997. Vase. Dated in the inscription to the jia wu year (1894). Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace). Qianjiang decoration. Height 29.5 cm (11 5/8 inch.)

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Gotheborg.com reference collection.

Signed by: Mei Chun Mao
Mark: Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace)

1125. Vase with elephant's trunk handles. Dated in the inscription to the jia wu year (1894). Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace). In 1905 Mei Chun Mao occurs on a pieces with a stamped Tongzhi Nian Zhi mark, see 1905

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Signed by: Zhou Da He

835. Pair of vases with mirrored decoration. No marks. Signed by: Zhou Da He and dated in the inscription to the jia wu year (1894).

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Gotheborg.com reference collection.

Signed by: Bao Wen

1119. Teapot. Signed by: Bao Wen and dated in the inscription to the jia wu year (1894).

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1175. Soap box. Dated in the inscription to the jia wu year (1894).

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1173. Dish. The decoration is of two five clawed dragons around the 'five happinesses' (wu fu) in the center and on the underside of the rim - three happinesses. In Chinese Porcelain of the 20th Century van Oort says that "[in 1894] every high official in the Empire had been invited to contribute twenty-five per cent of his salary as a birthday gift to Her Majesty ... however I have not been able to trace in the history of the Qing dynasty any mention of an official decree ordering porcelain to be made in Jingdezhen for that occasion". The quality of this dish is good and fits well with an actual date of production to the last years of the 19th century Base mark is Guangxu period 'jia wu' (1894) year make. The porcelain made for Cixi for her 50th birthday in 1885 carries the mark Chuxiu Gong zhi and resemble Kangxi wares in design. Aside from the Dayazhai wares are those the only pieces that we know are directly associated with her. She was born November 29th, 1835 and died November 15th, 1908. Why a date of 1894 is indeed her 59th birthday, her Chinese age would be 60.

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1895
604. Kamcheng pot, dated Yi Wei Nian (1895)

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674. Square vase, dated Yi Wei Nian (1895). On one side a scholar, on the other side a "White head Granny and Peony" decoration, which generally could be translated to a wish for "family success, wealth, prosperity and old age".

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Signed by: Qing Shu

686. Bowl. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace). Dated mid summer 1895. Inscription reads Shi Zai (at the time of) Yi Wei (matching year 1895) Zhong Qiu (mid summer) Qing Shu (Artist name).

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825. Mark: Tongzhi - "Tongzhi (Period Made)". Qianjiang enamels, dated the years of Yi Wei = 1895.

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1896
In 1898 Guangxu exerted his power as emperor and implemented the "100 Days' Reform" why Cixi promptly slapped him down confining him to his palace and took power as regent.

Signed by: Xiao Shan

517. Bing Shen Qiu Rou - "Bing Shen (Year) Autumn Month". Most likely year matching "Bing Shen" are 1896. Xiao Shan Zuo - Xiao Shan ( Artist's name ) Painted.
Base red mark : Gao Bo Sheng Hao - Gao Bo Sheng Company.

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This item is donated to the gotheborg.com reference collection.
Ex. N K Koh Collection.


1225. Teapot. Signed in the inscription to the Bing Shen year, probably meaning 1896. Stamped mark in red enamels: Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace).

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1443. Bowl. Signed in the inscription to the Bing Shen year (1896). Stamped mark in red enamels: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi (Great Qing dynasty Tongzhi period make).

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1898
1108. Brushpot, dated wu xu year, in the calligraphy, matching western date is 1898. Qianjiang decoration. Red base mark Guangxu Nian Zhi (Guangxu Period Make).

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1164. Hat stand, dated wu xu year, in the calligraphy, matching western date is 1898. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace).

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Gotheborg.com reference collection, 2006

Signed by: Dai Yu Cheng

1113. Hatstand, dated wu xu year, in the calligraphy, matching western date is 1898. Red base mark Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi. The text is a rather sloppy cursive that starts off talking about the pure and elegant etc pleasures of collecting antiques. following the date it gives a place of manufacture that is not quite clear to me--something mountain something in Changpu? Last is the name of the artist Dai Yu Cheng.

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Translation curtesy of David Lane

Signed by: Ma Qingyun (1898)

1428. Ginger Jar, dated wu xu year in the calligraphy (1898). Mark on the base an unusual combination of period and artist/studio: Guangxu Nian Qingyun Zhi. Signed by: 马庆云 Ma Qingyun (1898).

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1899
996. Bowl, dated ji hai in the calligraphy, matching western date is 1899. Qianjiang decoration. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace).

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1161. Hatstand, dated in the calligraphy ji hai year (1899). Stamped red base mark Tongzhi Nian Zhi.

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Gotheborg.com Reference Coll. 2006

1188. Large vase, dated in the calligraphy to the ji hai year (1899). Green enameled base with no mark. Height of vase 24 inches / 61 cm.

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Gotheborg.com Reference Coll. 2007

1224. Bowl, dated in the calligraphy to the ji hai year (1899). Base mark: stamped dark red mark Tongzhi Nian Zhi. Diameter 4 1/4 inches / 10.8 cm.

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Gotheborg.com Reference Coll. 2007

1900
1148. Bowl, dated geng xi (1900) in the calligraphy. Qianjiang decoration.

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Gotheborg.com Reference Coll. 2006

1901 (27th year Guangxu reign)
Ke Fengshi, Governor of Jiangxi submitted a memorial to the throne proposing to set up a porcelain company under the Qing court.
1006. Lidded jar, dated to the xin chou year in the calligraphy, matching western date is 1901. Red stamped four character Tongzhi Nian Zhi (Tongzhi year make) base mark.

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This item is donated to the gotheborg.com reference collection by William Turnbull, Canada, 2004.

Signed and seal of: GAO Heng Sheng

1009. Hat stand, dated to the xin chou year in the calligraphy, matching western date is 1901. Red stamped four character base mark GAO Heng Sheng. The name also appears as the last line of the poem.

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1176. Teapot, dated to the xin chou year in the calligraphy, matching western date is 1901. Red stamped four character base mark Tongzhi Nian Zhi.

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1426. Vase by the Qianjiang master Zhang Zhi Yun (or Zhang Zhi Ying). Dated 1901. (No base mark.)

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1902 (28th year Guangxu reign)
Inauguration of the Porcelain Company.
653. Vase, dated 1902. Red plus green Fu dog. Stamped Tongzhi Nian Zhi mark. White glossy foot rim with brown grit stains. Calligraphy in a grayish black soft enamel. Black enamels of green dog under a clear green glaze. Thin reddish rim border dressing. Putty colored porcelain.

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1002. Jar. Height 7 cm, diameter 7.5 cm. Fire support marks on the flat base. No base mark. Dated in the decoration as ren yin, representing '1902'.

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1098. Tea pot. Decorated in a combination of underglaze blue and enamels. Dated in the decoration as ren yin, representing '1902'.

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Signed and seal: Guo Heng Sheng

1111. Covered jar. Iron red seal mark on the base: Gao Heng Sang Zhi. Height 9.5 cm. Decorated in enamels. Dated in the decoration as ren yin, representing '1902'. The red seal mark on the base says "Gao" (high/tall), "Heng" (constant, enduring, everlasting), "hua??" (painted). "Hua" might be a bit of a stretch too. Signature in the inscription "Gao Heng Sheng Zuo" (made).

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1114. Plate with light-brown rim. Thickly applied enamels with a bird perching at the stalk of flowering sprays of hydrangea, inscription with a cyclic date ren yin (1902) year and a red seal. On the undecorated reverse an iron-red four-character mark (Guan yao nei zao Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace) to the base, sand adhesion to the foot rim, pinholes and drops of glaze stuck to the reverse.

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1126. Vase. Inscription with a cyclic date ren yin year (1902).

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1170. Serving dish. Base mark in red: Guangxu Nian Zhi - "Guangxu (1875-1908) period make". Inscription with a cyclic date ren yin year, (1902).

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Gotheborg.com Referece Collection 2006

1903 (29th year Guangxu reign)
Samples of machine-made porcelain based on Western prototypes presented to the Qing court by the Porcelain Company.
660. Small vase with elephant handles, with long snoozles. Calligraphy in dull black enamel, dated 1903. The yellow bird is probably "The Great Spring Scholar" which singing signals the arrival of Spring. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace) same as #671

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995. Ginger jar with glazed opening. Height 13 cm. Red seal mark on the base Tongzhi Nian Zhi. Dated in the decoration to the gui mao year (1903).

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Seal: Wang You Tang
1001. Bowl. Diameter 8 cm. Stamped base mark: Wang You Tang Zuo. Wang was a good porcelain painter. He made many pieces, some very good. Signed and dated in the calligraphy, to the gui mao year (1903).

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1017. Vase. Dated in the decoration to the gui mao year (1903).

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Signed by artist: Drawing by Zhang Yi Tai

1197. Tea pot. Mark: "Zhang Yi Tai Hui", or Drawing by Zhang Yi Tai. Dated in the decoration to the gui mao year (1903). In Straits Chinese porcelain Zhen Yi Tai is a common mark. Zhang Yi probably signifies the name of a company (Tai). A number of old businesses in San Francisco Chinatown have this same tai character as the last one in a three-character name, for example "Jiu Jong Tai," "Fa Ming Tai," "Guang Xing Tai," etc.

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1904
829. Teapot. Poetry "the blinds (curtains) reflects the Beauty's face", Red seal mark on the base Tongzhi Nian Zhi. Dated to the :jia chen year meaning 1904.

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Signed by: Fang Jia Zhen
Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi

1024. Mug with handle. Height 10 cm, diameter 10 cm. Base mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi, Dated to the :jia chen year meaing 1904. For a shallow bowl with the same signature, see #988 (1884).

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1905
47. Vase, dated 1905. Mark: Guangxu Nian Zhi (1875-1908).

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957. Vase. Top right third and forth character are yi si which equals the year 1905. Illegible base mark very blurred but possible: Guangxu Nian Zhi (1875-1908).

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1015. Square brush pot, height 9 cm / 3.5". Dated in the inscription to yi si which equals the year 1905. Illegible iron red four character base mark in a square frame.

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Signed by: Jin Shao Zhai

832. Brush pot for Chinese painting, 1905. The verses saying something in the line of: Dreaming of a country house, in the green forest. Signed by the artist: Jin Shao Zhai. Dated in the calligraphy to the Yi si year, 1905.

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Gotheborg.com Referece Collection

Signed and seal: Lou Chun Mao
Mark: Tongzhi Nian Zhi

1079. Hatstand, Calligraphy: "Admiring the old for benefit in the future, Mr Luo Chun Mao made, (plus his seal), Winter of the Yi Si year (1905). In 1894 Mei Chun Mao occurs on a pieces with a Guan yao nei zao mark, see 1894

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Gotheborg.com Reference Collection


1158. Stemcup, dated in the calligraphy Yi Si year (1905). No base mark.

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Gotheborg.com Reference Collection 2006

1906
1906_2. Tea pot with lid, decorated in red, green and black enamels of a Buddhist lion (fu dog), dated in the decorative calligraphy to the bing wu year (1906). Mark: JINGDEZHEN LU' GUANG SHU`N ZA`O meaning: "Jingdezhen Lu Guang Shun Make"

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1102. Lidded tea cup set with stand, underglaze blue and white decoration, signed date is Ping Wu Nian, 1906. Mark: meaning: "Precious collection of gold and jade"

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1103. Large Vase with the year Wu Nian, 1906, in the inscription. No mark:

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1104. Square dish with the year Wu Nian, 1906, in the inscription. No mark.

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1907 (33th year Guangxu reign)
Duan Fang, Governor-general of Jiangsu and Zhejiang submitted a memorial to the throne on the change of the Porcelain Company from merchant run on government-supervised terms to entirely merchant-run terms, and was renamed the Commercial Porcelain Company of Jiangxi Limited, which managed also the imperial kilns.
531. Vase, dated ding wei 1907. No mark.

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Seal on base: YU Zi Ming
1012. Six sided hatstand, dated ding wei 1907. Red seal mark on the base, signed by the personal seal of YU Zi Ming

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Seal on base: Tai Yue Shing
1117. Large tea pot, dated ding wei 1907. Red seal mark on the base of the artist Tai Yue Shing Made.

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1156. Six sided hatstand, dated to the ding wei year (1907) in the inscription. Blurred red seal mark on the base, probably Tongzhi Nian Zhi "Tongzhi period make".

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1908
663. Hair's oil jar. Dated to the wu shen year, 1908.

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1109. Vase. Height 9"/22.6 cm. Dated to the wu shen year, 1908. On the base a square stamped four character mark; Tongxhi Nian Zhi

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Xuantong (1909-11) period
1909 (1st year Xuantong reign)
Jingdezhen Chamber-general of Commerce was established.

Signed by: Jiang Yong Sheng

755. 'Peace and riches' vase. Ti kai, er shu hua, ji you xia yue shu yu jiang you, Jiang yong sheng zuo. The bird's call make the flowers bloom. Drawn beside the river Jiang, in the summer months of the 'Ji You' year (1909), by 'Jiang Yong Sheng'.

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113. Yi Xing Long Zhu - "Yi Xing Long" Factory Made. Fencai enamels. Dated 1909.

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Signed: Zhang Yi Tai Zuo (Made))

754. Mark: Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi Period Made". According to the caligraphy this was made by Cheung Wen-tai in the winter of 1909. The meaning of the calligraphy is to congratulate people on a bright and promising career etc., maybe a promotion.

The inscription reads and means: Tai shi sheng dian, shao bao zun rong - "The assistant is honored when the master is enpowered". (Tai shi is the title of a high ranking official or teacher to the future emperor, while Shao bao is an assistant) Ji you zhong dong yue - "ji you year (1909), month of mid winter". Zhang yi tai zuo - "Made by Zhang Yi Tai"

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1130. Vase. Height 17.25 inches (44 cm). Dated in the inscription to the ji you year (1909). Iron red mark stamp under the base.

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Signed by: Zhang Jianxiang

1203. Vase. Verse direct translation is "prosperity/wealthy and grey hair". The bird symbolize wealth and longevity. Made in the ji you year (1909) by Zhang Jianxiang. No mark. Height 18 inches (c. 46 cm). Decoration in the style of silk paintings signed by the Empress Dowager Cixi. Apparently these paintings were all the rage in the Qing courts. Most of the concubines including Cixi spent their free time learning and painting these flowers and also birds.

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1910 (2nd year Xuantong reign)
Petition to the Ministry of Education to establish the China Pottery Manufacture School, later renamed the Jiangxi Provincial Ceramic Vocational School.
1320. Large dish. Dated to the geng xu year (1910) dong (winter). Diam 14 inches / 34.5 cm. No mark.

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This item is donated to the gotheborg.com reference collection by Edward Boyle, 2010.

640. Alice och James Keiller Canton 1910 Fencai enamels. Dated 1910.

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659. Vase with engraved decoration. Brown dressed dog's heads handles. Dated 1910.

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1911
The Qing dynasty is overthrown in 1911.
652. Blue and white flower pot. Dated to the xin hai year in the calligraphy (1911).

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1154. Small liondog decorated vase with an innovative shape, typical of the period. On the base a factory mark of the period Tong Sang Tai Made. Dated to the xin hai year in the calligraphy (1911).

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Republic (1912-49) period
1912
Jingdezhen Research Society of the Art of Porcelain was established in 1912.
The last emperor, Pu-yi with the reign title Xuantong, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. However, that same day, the Republic of China granted Pu-yi to retain his imperial title. This was revised November 5, 1924 after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang making Pu-yi a regular citizen of the Republic of China and the same day expelling him from the Forbidden City. Thus, Pu-yi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. In 1932-1934 Pu-yi was put in place as the leader of the Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong (??) and in 1934-1945 made 'emperor' of the same region under the reign name Kangde (??).
654. Lidded food bowl. Soft colored enamels. Grayish calligraphi. Burnt red base and foot rim. Dated 1912.

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1028. Jar. Grayish calligraphi. Burnt red base and foot rim. Dated in the worn calligraphy to the ren zi year i.e. 1912.

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1020. Large vase. No base mark. Dated in the calligraphy to the ren zi year meaning 1912.

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Signed by: Zhou Xiao Song
Base mark: Zhou Xiao Song (name) Zhi (made)

1014. Vase. Dated to the ren zi year (1912). Square iron red seal mark on the base Zhou Xiao Song Zhi, and signed by Zhou Xiao Song in the calligraphy. The poem is a duplet, i.e. made up of two sentences with seven words each, reading:

" Gu yan bu rong liu su mo;
Qing ping sui yi cha xin hua"

Meaning
"The old ink-stone allows not ink that stays overnight;
The simple vase holds fresh flowers freely placed."

The poem is identical with that on the vase #1011.

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1183. Large vase or hat stand. Dated in the calligraphy to the ren zi year meaning 1912. Illustrated as a comparison is a undated vase. marked with a stamped red 'Guangxu Nian Zhi' mark, which potting is a little thicker and have more evident rings on the inside of the foot rim. In my opinion the date is correct and the Guangxu mark is applied with a stamp to this vase 4 years after the Guangxu period has ended.

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1913
1007. Bowl decorated with enamels and gilt. Red base seal mark. Dated in the calligraphy to the 'gui chou' year (1913).

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1011. Vase decorated with enamels and gilt. No base mark. Dated in the calligraphy to the 'gui chou' year (1913). The poem is a duplet, i.e. made up of two sentences with seven words each, reading:

" Gu yan bu rong liu su mo;
Qing ping sui yi cha xin hua"

Meaning
"The old ink-stone allows not ink that stays overnight;
The simple vase holds fresh flowers freely placed."

The poem is identical with that on the vase #1014.

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1053. Republic of China Anniversary Brush Holder. A Famille rose Brush pot special made for Republic of China’s 2nd year Anniversary, dated year gui chou corresponding to 1913.

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1914
102. Mark: Li Xie Xing Zao - "Li Xie Xing" Factory Made. Dated 1914.

The second part of the text contains the words Jia Yin Nian - matching year 1914. The birds common Chinese name is "White head Granny" and the flower is of course Peony, which stands for prosperity. Caption is: "Prosperity to the old age". Unmistakably Jiangxi quality, either Jingdezhen or Nanchang . Set of several bowls: Bird: "White head Granny" (Prosperity till eternity). Bowl 2: Yellow bird - "The Great Spring Scholar", Caption refers to the fantastic singing of this yellow bird. In the quiet Chinese villages, after a long snowy winter, her rapid singing signaling the arrival of Spring is sheer joy. Bowl 3 - The flaming/glorious blossom. Peony is here a metaphor for family success and wealth. The date carries all the characteristic of the period : Two years into the republic periond, the warlords are still fighting but the bright enamels, the hue of the white glaze and the hasty fluent painting reflects the desire of the potters of a better daily life. Click here to see large picture.


Signed: Wang Yongtai, 1914

1425. Mark: Wang Yong Tai xx Dated 1914.

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1227. Lidded jar. Dated in the inscription to the jia yin year (1914). No mark.

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Gotheborg.com reference collection, 2007.

1915
Yuan Shikai restored monarchism under the reign title of Hongxian and appointed Guo Baochang Superintendent of Pottery Works to supervise the manufacture of Hongxian ware in Jingdezhen.

Signature and mark: Chen Yung Tai (name) Zao Made

1153. Tea pot. Dated in the inscription to the yi mao year (1915). Mark and signature in inscription: Chen Yung Tai (name) Zao Made. The decoration is of a boat in the river, "(Boat) Guest tour thousand mountains and miles with the Spring wind".

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Gotheborg.com reference collection, 2006.

1159. Vase with engraved decoration. Dated in the inscription to the yi mao year (1915). No base mark at all.

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Gotheborg.com reference collection, 2006.

1178. Narcissus bowl. Dated in the inscription to the yi mao year (1915). No base mark at all.

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Gotheborg.com reference collection, 2006.

1916
In 1916 Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself the short-lived Hongxian Emperor. It was said that he ordered porcelain sets from Jingdezhen in 1915 to coincide with the inauguration of the regime. In my view all pieces actually ordered by Yuan Shikai carries the Juren Tang zhi mark. All porcelain crrying the Hongxian nian zhi are probably later.
656. Coffe jug. Dated in the inscription as of "1916", Stamped, very blurred mark.

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774. Small soup bowl. Dated in the inscription as of "1916", Kangxi Nian Zhi mark, very blurred mark. "Hollow line" in the decoration.

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<>br This item donated to the gotheborg.com reference collection by Hans Slager, 2003.

833. Porcelain vase. The two first upright characters gives the year bing chen (1916). Mark: Liu Jun He Zao meaning: 'Liu Jun He' Made.

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1016. Small soup bowl. Dated in the inscription as of "1916". Poem signed with the same name as the factory or studio; Fang Ping Tai painted, and base mark Fang Ping Tai Hao.

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1022. Lidded 'Kamcheng' soup bowl. Height with lid 18 cm, diam 19 cm. Dated in the inscription to the bing chen year, meaning "1916". Base mark Ma Qing Yun Hua Ya Chi.

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1171. Vase. Dated in the inscription to the bing chen year, meaning "1916".

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Goteborg Reference Collection 2006

1917
530. Dated in the inscription to the ding si year (1917), no mark.

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1208. Plate. Dated in the inscription to the ding si year (1917).

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658. Square miniature vase. Clear black outlines and calligraphy. Blurred gold. Dated in the inscription to the ding si year (1917). No base mark.

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Jiangxi Guang Ya (name) Company

1121. Lidded bowl. Dated in the inscription to the ding si year (1917). Base mark in blue enamel: Jiangxi Guang Ya Gongsi "Jiangxi Guang Ya (name) Company".

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I P Collection


1151. Hat stand / vase with fu dog decoration. Dated in the inscription to the ding si year (1917).

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I P Collection


1222. Bowl. Mark: mark is Yi Ji Qi Zhen (Factory mark). Dated in the inscription to the ding si year (1917).

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1226. Vase. Height 22 cm / 8.75 inches. Mark: faint square red large, illegible. (Factory mark). Dated in the inscription to the ding si year (1917).

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Gotheborg.com reference collection, 2007.


1452. Sttraight sided vase. Height 28 cm / 11 inches. Mark: reversed seal mark. Dated in the inscription to the ding si year (1917).

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Gotheborg.com reference collection, 2013.

1918

1131. Hat stand / vase. Square base mark in red enamel. Dated in the inscription to the wu wu year (1919).

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1919
662. Hair's oil jar. Dated 1919.

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1099. Lidded bowl. Illegible stamped iron red mark. Dated in the inscription to the ji wei year, meaning 1919.

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1027. Lidded bowl. Dated in the inscription to the ji wei year, meaning 1919.

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Gotheborg Reference Coll. 2005

1110. Teapot. Illegible stamped iron red mark. Dated in the inscription to the ji wei year, meaning 1919.

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Gotheborg Reference Coll. 2006

1110. Lidded bowl. Stamped iron red mark reads "Chang Jiang Cui Yun Xuan Hua" (Drawn in the "Green Cloud Balcony" of Chang Jiang). Poem interpretated as "The field of books carries no tax, let our descendants exploit its benefits." Dated in the inscription to the ji wei year (1919).

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1920
1004. Brush pot with no base mark. Dated in the inscription to the geng shen year, i.e. either 1860 or 1920 of which 1860 seems unlikely considering how the woman is rendered.

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Gotheborg.com reference collection.

51. Dated in the inscription as of "1920", no mark.

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655. Vase. Republic era clothes. Dated in the inscription as of "1920", no mark.

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989. Narcissus bowl, dated in the inscription to 1920, no mark.

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1174. Lidded bowl, dated in the inscription to geng shen year (1920). Red stamped seal mark Qianlong Nian Zhi on the base.

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Gotheborg reference collection, 2006

1921
647. "1921 Winter month, For Sir Run Mao's pleasure. From your humble friend Chen Guang Di respectfully presented".

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This item is donated to the gotheborg.com reference collection by N K Koh, Singapore, 2003.

981.

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Bill Turnbull Coll.


Painted by: Xu Dasheng
Base mark: Xu Zhen Xiang Shi "Xu's Hall of Good Omen"

1145. Cup. . The poem from right to left yue yue jian xi meaning "Moon Moon See Happiness "or "See happiness every month". First and second column unclear but might contain a date xin you (1921) year. Dong "winter ..." . Third and fourth columns read Xu Dasheng zuo (made by Xu Dasheng). Red stamped basemark Xu Zhen Xiang Shi "Xu's Hall of Good Omen"

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Gotheborg Reference Coll. 2006

1177. Narcissus Bowl. Red stamped factory mark Wu Yuan Kum Made on the base. Dated in the calligraphy to the year of xin you (1921).

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1922
1122. Lidded jar. No base mark. Height 12" (30 cm). Dated in the inscription to the ren xu year (1922).

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Gotheborg.com reference coll.

1146. Soap box with pierced lid. Length 4.75" (12 cm). Dated in the inscription to the ren xu year (1922).

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Gotheborg.com reference coll. 2006

1165. Lidded bowl with ring handles. Length 4.75" (12 cm). Dated in the inscription to the ren xu year (1922).

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Gotheborg.com reference coll. 2006

1923
1149. Brush pot with "Schcolars graduation decoration" (fish and dragon). No base mark. Height 5" (12.5 cm). Dated in the inscription to the ren hai year (1923).

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Gotheborg.com reference coll. 2006

1924
1023. Lidded 'Kamcheng' soup bowl. Height with lid 18 cm, diam 19 cm. Underglaze blue mark on the base: Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi (Jiangxi Procelain company). Dated in the decorative inscription to the jia zi year, meaning "1924".

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1123. Large vase. Height 22.5". Iron red mark stamped on the base " ... Zhen Pin" meaning " ... Precious Product". Dated in the inscription to the jia zi year, meaning "1924".

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1172. Ginger jar, with the Chinese cyclical date jia zi in the inscription, meaning 1924.

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Gotheborg Reference Collection 2006


Artist name: Su Gong(?) Yue

1192. Soy sauce ewer, with the Chinese cyclical date jia zi (1924) in the inscription. Stamped base mark Cheng Long Wan Pin "Successful Grand Joyful Product". The mark, Wan Pin literal direct translation is Play Item. Here it should means collector or souvenir item. The artist name is Su Gong(?) Yue. .

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Gotheborg Reference Collection 2007

1925
1128. Hat stand or Vase. Red stamped illeglible base mark. Inscription with a cyclic date Yi chou (1925) zhi (year) Dong (winter) yue (month).

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628. Wu Lun Tu ( "Five Relations" motif). Dated in the inscription as Yi Chou Nian i.e. "1925", no mark.

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990. Bowl dated "1925" in the inscription. Mark: company "yen sen sen".

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This piece is donated to the gotheborg.com reference collection by N K Koh, Singapore, 2004.

1118. Large Kamcheng missing its lid. Height 5 7/8" (15 cm), Width 8 1/4" (21 cm). Six character iron red stamped mark on the base, Jiangxi Yu Yuan Chang Zuo where Jiangxi is the province where most of the Chinese porcelain industry is located, Yu is a name meaning 'gold', Yuan is a name, meaning 'first' or 'primary', Chang, is a name, meaning 'prosperous' and zuo meaning 'workshop'. The base mark which thus could be translated as Jiangxi (province) 'Yu Yuan Chang' (name) Workshop is noticeable a little bit smaller than expected in a way similar to that of the #1112 (1929). Tentative dated in the calligraphy to the yi chou year (1925).

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Gotheborg.com reference collection 2006

1168. Small teapot with upright standing handle. Height 4" (10 cm). Four character iron red stamped mark on the base. Dated in the calligraphy to the yi chou year (1925).

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Gotheborg.com reference collection 2006

1926
The Provincial Kiln Industry School was moved to Jingdezhen and renamed the Jingdezhen Provincial Ceramic School.
1928
Wang Qi, Wang Yeting and six others formed "The Full Moon Society" (Yueyuan Hui), later known as the "Eight Friends of Zhushan".
1929
704. Xin Mei Di Luo / Ji Nian / Ying Gong Zeng / 1929.4 - (To my) lovely sister Di Luo (girl's name) as a memory of Ying Gong (man's name) given 1929.4.

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828. Bowl. Underglaze blue mark on the base: Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi (Jiangxi Procelain company). Dated in the decorative calligraphy to the year of ji ci (1929).

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This item is donated to the gotheborg.com reference collection.
Ex. N K Koh Collection.

1112. Vase or Hatstand. Four character iron red stamped mark on the base: Yang Yong Xing Fa (same Yong Xing Fa occurs in the inscription) where Yang is a surname probably of the artist, and Yong Xing Fa is the 'company' name. Dated in the calligraphy to the year of ji ci (1929). Inscription: yuan (distant), pu (shore), X, fan ("sails"), X, X, qiu (autumn) shi (time/period) ji si (1929), ?? in margin, yong (eternal), xing (happy), fa (South chinese name for 'company'), xie (written by). Yang was either employed by the Yong Xing Fa Company or the factory owner. Porcelain factory owners were often good porcelain painters in those days.

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Gotheborg.com reference collection. Translation by David Lane and Simon Ng

1931
Fuliang County Ceramic Vocational School was established.
1933
994. Dated in the inscription "1933".

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999. Brush washer dish, dated in the inscription as the year gui you, meaning "1933". Red base mark of Han qing.

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1000. Brush washer dish, dated in the inscription as the year gui you, meaning "1933". Red base mark of Yi chun.

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1934
Inauguration of the Jiangxi Pottery Manufacture Authority, with Du Zhongyuan appointed Director-general.
649. Covered tea mug with handle. Red base mark "Min Guo Nian San Nian Zhi" meaning "Chinese Republic twenty three year Make". The 23rd year is 1911+23=1934. Double foot rim. Soft enamels with a metallic sheen. Glossy black calligrahy.

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1935
630. Dated in the inscription Republic 23rd year March Lin Dong made in Nanchong, Since 1912 was counted as year 1, the 23rd year is 1912-23=1935. Mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - "Guangxu period (1875-1908) made".

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1936
631. Dated in the inscription to 1936. Mark: Made in China

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1937
1082. Dated in the inscription to the ding chou year, meaning 1937. Base mark is Ping Shan, by Wang Ye Ping, or Wang Ping. Landscape specialist and one of the 'Eight Friends'.

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1940
645. Dated in the inscription to the 29th year of the Republic (1940). "Hong Jun ( Artist name ) self made in Jingzhen ( Zingdezhen )". Base Mark: "Ji Feng" (Artist's second name).

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1942
650. Vase with red figure, painted by one of the Eight Friends of Shushan. Dated 1942 in the inscription.

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966. Vase. Export porcelain. Dated 1942 in the inscription. Shows signs on having been treated to look old. Documented to have been in the family, at least as early as 1957.

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1943
1050. Brushholder with figure. Mark Jiangxi Zhen Pin meaning "Jiangxi Precious Product". Dated 1943 in numericals, in the inscription.
1945
The Jiujiang Provincial Ceramic Vocational School merged with the County Ceramic Vocational School under the name of the Provincial Ceramic Institute.
1947
646. Dated "Spring 1947, Liu Ke Rui painted at Zhu Shan". (Zhu Shan or Pearl Hill is the area of the former Imperial porcelain factory in Jingdezhen.)

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This item is donated to the gotheborg.com reference collection.
Ex. N K Koh Collection.

657. Dish. Double foot rim. Redish border over black decoration. Multi colored and freely blended enamels. No base mark.

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991. Bowl, Hand written iron red base mark: Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi meaning "Jiangxi Procelain company". Diameter 12 cm. Dated in the inscription to the 36th year of the Chinese republic (1912+35), meaning 1947.

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This item is donated to the gotheborg.com reference collection by N K Koh, Singapore, 2004.

1169. Square brush pot. Hand written iron red base mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing dynasty, Qianlong Period Make". Height 6 inches / 15.5 cm.
The inscription reads qiu (autumn) shen (deep) cui (blue green/kingfisher) niao (bird) xia (descends) xun (seeking) hua (flowers); (xunhua also means 'seeking sex')
minguo (Peples Republic) 36 nian (year) yu (at) Zhushan; Year corresponding to 1947.
The painted red seal is meant to read shangpin (superior object).
The other panel repeats the latter: made in 1947 at Zhushan. The entire poem could be translated:
The blue green Kingfisher descends
in his search for flowers in the late autumn

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Gotheborg.com reference collection, 2006.

Early Peoples Republic (1949-65)
Ten porcelain factories period 1950-1995.

On No.55 of Fengjing Road of Jingdezhen city, beside Zhushanbayou Square is today a Ten Porcelain Factories Museum. The background is that after the founding of 'New China' the authorities in Jingdezhen set out to modernize the ceramic industry. To this end the many large and small private industries was combined into about a dozen large state-owned porcelain factories. These were for example: Jianguo, Renmin, Xinhua, Dongfeng, Jingxing, Yishu, Guangming, Hongxing, Hongqi, Yuzhou, Weimin, Huafeng, Diaosu, Hongguang, Shuguang, Xinguang and so on. From this time and onwards entered the "Ten porcelain factories" period. However, by the mid-1990s with the continuous reform, 'opening up' and development needs towards the market economy, the state-owned "Ten porcelain factories" was taken apart again step by step. As Jingdezhen moved forward with new reform the characteristic porcelains of nearly half a century from "Ten porcelain factories" gradually fadeded away. Now after more than ten years of collecting ceramics and related data of the "Ten porcelain factories" between 1950 to 1995 are shown to the public in the "Ten porcelain factories Ceramics Museum".

1949
Jingdezhen Research Society of the Art of Ceramics is established. The setting up of the Jianguo Porcelain Company, a state owned localized business in Jingdezhen, began in August and went into operation in 1950.
1950
Jingdezhen Porcelain Company was established in May 1950 and later renamed Jiangxi Ceramic Industry Company. During the period 1950-1955, in accordance with the socialist reform, Jingdezhen had its 9373 potters and craftsmen grouped into 16 ceramic production cooperatives, 13 painted porcelain cooperatives and 7 painted porcelain groups.
1952
Establishment of the Jingdezhen Jianguo Porcelain Factory, Jingdezhen's first state-run enterprise.
1953
The Ministry of Culture approved the setting up of the Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum, which had its grand opening on 1 January 1954.
1954
1 January 1954, grand opening of the Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum. The Jingdezhen Laboratorial Research Institute of Ceramics was set up in August, and later renamed the Ceramic Institute of Scientific-industrial Research under the Ministry of Light Industries.
1955
First coal-fuelled reduction down-draught kiln and first slip-casting machine, both placed in Factory No. 9. Such advancement in technique was regarded as significant for production.
1138. Wash basin, dated 1955. Decorated in underglaze green. One option Liling kiln, Henan province. Another suggestion Cizhou White Ware. The inscription says Bao Wei Guo Jia - "Defend the Country, possibly war with Russia at the border in 1955" Shi Jie Hu He - "Peace To The World". Diameter 29 cm.

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1956
In 1956, the state-run Jingxing Ceramic Factory was founded on the model of the Jianhua Ceramic Factory of joint state-private ownership. The Jingdezhen Ceramic Factory of Sculptures was founded by merging the Jingdezhen Art Society with the Sculpture Society and the Experimental Ceramic Factory. Establishment of the Jiangxi Ceramic Corporation on 16 February.
1958
In 1958, the Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute is establishment, the only tertiary institution specializing in the education and studies of the art of ceramics in China. Setting up of the state-run Yishu Ceramic Factory to manufacture famille-rose wares and antique-type wares. Setting up of the state-run Hongxing Ceramic Factory to manufacture everyday wares of new designs. Setting up of the state-run Hongqi Ceramic Factory to manufacture wares of underglaze designs. Setting up of the state-run Yuzhou Ceramic Factory to manufacture everyday wares of dinner services. The building project of the state-run Refined Art Ceramic Factory commenced. Production started in 1965. It was renamed the Weimin Ceramic Factory in 1966 and produced everyday wares as well as art-and-craft ceramics.
1959
Setting up of the state-run Dongfeng Ceramic Factory to manufacture everyday wares.
1961
In 1961 the state-run Hongqi Ceramic Factory is split into two units. One retained the original name, the other was named Guangming Ceramic Factory and specialized in manufacturing blue and white wares with glazed perforations.
1962
570. Diao Yu Tai Guo Bin Guan and Tao Ci Yan Jiu Suo. "Diao Yu Tai" is where all the foreign important people are treated and met. Guo Bin Guan means "State Guests Lodge" and Tao Ci Yan Jiu Suo means "Ceramics Research Institute". Dated 1962.

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1964
In 1964 the Hongxing Ceramic Factory introduced the double-blade jollying machine. Tested and certified by the Ministry of Light Industries and the Department of Light Industries, it was recommended for use nationwide.
1965
In 1965 the state-run Xinhua Ceramic Factory is set up to manufacture ethnic wares of the minorities. Successes in the construction and trial firing of the tunnel-kiln. The kiln had the advantages of continuous production, shortening the cycle of operation, multiplying the output, raising the quality and reducing the use of fuel.

The Cultural Revolution (1966-76) period
As a result of the Cultural Revolution, 7 ceramic factories and research units were curtailed, 4 mines of porcelain clay were blocked, 2928 technicians were forced to work in other fields and 13 ceramics factories had to diversify their production to include other goods. Compared to 1960, the number of workers reduced by 40%. The revolution gave a blow to the industry.
1966
665. Straight sided vase. Transfer printed decoration on a crackled porcelain body. Date in the text; 5th August 1966.

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1967
651. Blue and white decorated chop stick dryer. Dated in western style to 1965.

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1968
567. Tian'anmen Rostrum. Vase made in "Jingdezhen" to celebrate the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Decorated with Tian-An-Men Square and Hua Biao surrounded by sunflowers. Text on balloons with ribbons are "Long Live Chairman Mao", "Long Live the Communist Party" and Mao-Zhu-Xi-Wan-Sui "Chairman Mao's revolutionary route have success and live long life". Date in the text; 1968. This vase is the next largest in a set of four, height 24-36 cm.

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1100. Straight sided vase / brush pot. Transfer printed decoration on a crackled ivory porcelainous body. The date "1968 Year" is on the base. The printed inscription is dated; November 17, 1957.

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1969
Xinping Ceramic Factory was renamed the State-run Renmin Ceramic Factory and manufactured traditional blue and white wares.
1971
827. Brush pot. Text reading: "How beautiful is the landscape (country/nation), 1971, autum month"

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1973
666. Straight sided small vase or brush pot. Transfer printed decoration on a glossy white porcelain body. On the base "In memory of Manufacturing Company's Revolution Committee, October 1967". The front side motif is duplicating a propaganda poster; text: Chairman Mao and his close comrade-in-arms Comrade Lin Biao reviewing the Great Army of the Cultural Revolution, Long Live Chairman Mao. Lin is seen holding "Mao's Little Red Book" to which he was the initiator. Lin was a famous comrade to Mao who in 1969 was named Mao's successor until he in 1971 was accused of having planned an armed coup against Mao upon which Lin fled in a plane that crashed over Mongolia. In August 1973, two years later, a huge Criticize Lin Baio and Confucius campaign was initiated by Jiang Qing, Mao's wife, which continued until 1975. The passage printed on the back of this brush pot comes from the 2 September 1973 issue of the People's Daily (name and date within brackets). The text is a parable of sorts on the subject of class education along the lines of "don't try to be something that you are not". Given the close dates, this pot may have been part of the campaign. Tentative date 1973.

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1975
1124. Miniature eggshell porcelain vase with transfer printed decoration. No base mark. Height c. 4 inch (10 cm).

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1198. Large dish on crackled soft ceramic ware. Polychrome enamel decoration applied under the glaze. Dated in the inscription to the yi mao year (1975). Printed mark on the base Zhongguo Taoci or "China Ceramics". Origin; made in Taiwan.

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Post Cultural Revolution / State Capitalism
After the nightmare of the Cultural Revolution years came a phase that is too recent to have got any recognized name, time will tell what this will be called. Post Cultural Revolution is one possibility that is of course correct but more important for the artistic development was the careful and step by step establishing of state supported private corporations. It was obvious that this followed a plan where the huge Chinese continent was gradually opened up to the rest of the world while catiously being monitored by suspicious Red Guard officials. Travel permits was however granted and trips organized for interested westerners. Hotels with English speaking staff, was built (guest houses), railroads was upgraded, bridges and airports supplying a basic infrastructure targeted at facilitating trade was built. The porcelain production that sorted under the Ministry of Light Industry was also opened up to foreign investors or at least modern ceramic ovens and some basic machines was introduced in Jingdezhen. Plaster replaced pottery for moulds which gave better precision and faster production and slip casting that had been in use since I belive the 1950s, was gaining speed-. One of the more important uses for this was besides handles and spouts for tea and coffee wares, was in particular the popular eggshell wares based on the Japanese pre-war success, mostly intended for the souvenir trade.
1976
567. Porcelain figure of Qu Yuan, always seen carrying a long sword, and the face expression shows his grief and concern for his state and people. Slip cast. Incised date in the wet porcelain paste before firing 11.24.76 (24 November 1976).

Qu Yuan was both a statesman and China's first known poet. During his lifetime, he served as Minister of Law and Ordinance for his home state of Chu in southern China. Unfortunately, Qu Yuan lived during the Warring States period (481 - 221 B.C.), when larger, more powerful states were trying to consolidate their power. One of these states, Qin in the north, was determined to control the state of Chu. Qin leaders gave the King of Chu a peace treaty to sign, which they had no intention of honoring. Suspicious of their motives, Qu Yuan advised the king not to sign the treaty. Unfortunately, the king was threatened by Qu Yuan's stature, believing the poet was trying to gain greater political power in the government. Not only did he sign the treaty, but he banished Qu Yuan to a remote region in Hunan province. Eventually, Chu was defeated by the stronger Qin state.

It is thought that the news of Chu's defeat destroyed Qu Yuan's will to live. As a result, on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month in 278 B.C., he committed suicide by grasping a large rock and throwing himself into the Miluo River.

Local fisherman raced to their boats to recover his body, beating drums and splashing their paddles on the water to scare away the fish. But it was all to no avail. In one version of the legend, they began throwing rice on the water as a sacrifice to their dead hero, and to nourish his spirit. One night, the image of Qu Yuan appeared to one of the fisherman in a dream. In the dream, the poet revealed that the fish were eating the rice. He asked that the rice be wrapped in silk to protect it. Later, the silk was replaced with bamboo leaves.

In another version, the rice packets were meant for the fish, in an effort to keep them from devouring Qu Yuan's body. But whichever version you choose to believe, the death of Qu Yuan gave rise to both the dragon boat races and celebrating the day with zongzi - delicious dumplings made with glutinous rice that are stuffed in bamboo leaves.

"Many a heavy sigh I heaved in my despair, Grieving that I was born in such an unlucky time...I yoked a team of jade dragons to a phoenix-figured car, And waited for the wind to come, to soar up on my journey." (Qu Yuan).

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1978
Founding of the "July-21" University of the Jiangxi Ceramic Corporation, which was renamed the Jingdezhen Ceramic Staff and Workers' University.
1200. Vase on crackled soft ceramic ware. Polychrome enamel decoration applied on top of the glaze. Dated in the inscription to the wu wu year (1978). Printed blue mark under the glaze, on the base Zhongguo Taoci or "China Ceramics". Origin; made in Taiwan.

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1201. Vase on crackled soft ceramic ware. Polychrome enamel decoration applied on top of the glaze. Dated in the inscription to the wu wu year (1978). Printed blue mark under the glaze, on the base Zhongguo Taoci or "China Ceramics". Origin; made in Taiwan.

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Late 20th century
1979
Blue and white dinner sets with Chinese willow pattern made by the Renmin Ceramic Factory was awarded the National Gold Prize. Setting up of the Jiangxi Ceramic School by merging the Ceramic Profession, Jiangxi Handicraft Technical School with the Jingdezhen Ceramic Art and Technique Training School. Subsequently it was renamed the Jiangxi Technical Institute of Ceramic Arts and Crafts.
1980
"Fu shou" brand famille-rose ware of the Yishu Ceramic Factory was awarded the National Gold Quality Prize.
1981
"Wan yu" brand blue and white ware with glazed perforations of the Guangming Ceramic Factory was awarded the National Gold Quality Prize.
1982
Establishment of the Jingdezhen Ceramic Design and Technical Institute. The State Council announced on 26 February that Jingdezhen is one of the 24 "Historical and Cultural Cities of China".
1984
Blue and white dinner services with Chinese willow pattern design, in a set of 54-piece, made by the Renmin Ceramic Factory won 3 international gold prizes. "Wan yu" brand blue and white ware with glazed perforations of the Guangming Ceramic Factory was awarded again the National Gold Quality Prize.
1985
Completion of the Jingdezhen Huafeng Ceramic Factory, capable of producing 16 million pieces of everyday wares annually. Establishment of the Jiangxi Institute of Ceramics.
1986
"Wan yu" brand blue and white dinner services with glaze perforations, in a set of 45-piece, made by the Guangming Ceramic Factory won the Gold Prize at the Exposition in Leipzig, Germany. The operation of the Jingdezhen Coking Gas Plant supplied the ceramic industry with a fuel that greatly improved the quality and quantity of the output while the pollution of the city became less a problem.
1992
Establishment of the Jingdezhen Institute of Ceramics.
Around 1995 the porcelain production changes direction due to the fact that modern industrial processes, computers and thorough research to a noticeable extent becomes utilized in the porcelain production. A new era, until further called the 21st century, could because of that be said to have begun already in the mid 1990's.

RECENT ADDITIONS

Pictures and pieces making up this section are from my personal reference collection and are not for sale. Pieces have also been donated by Simon Ng, City University of Hong Kong, N K Koh, Singapore, Hans Mueller, USA. Hans Slager, Belgium, William Turnbull, Canada and Tony Jalin Zhang, Beijing. Readers are encouraged to contribute any insights or further information you might have. Any and dated Chinese Porcelain for sale can be offered to the gotheborg.com reference collection by e-mail to

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