Gotheborg.com - The Antique Chinese Porcelain Collectors Page

Chinese Porcelain Marks

Marks on Later Chinese Porcelain

Mr. Kung and Simon Ng, Hong Kong

This entire marks section would not have been possibly without the dedicated help of Mr. Simon Ng (right), City University of Hong Kong, whose translations and personal efforts in researching the origin and dates of the different marks have been and remains a necessary resource. To the left, porcelain merchant Mr. Kung, Hong Kong. Former owner of the Waa Lee porcelain company.

The only rule that is really certain when it comes to Chinese porcelain marks, is that most of them are NOT from the period they say. Still the marks are something of a fingerprint of the potter and its time, and from a careful study they offer a great help in identifying the date and maker of most Chinese porcelain. Offered here is an attempt to identify some of the marks on mostly late, trade and export quality porcelain. Under the MING and QING sections, there are separate pages dedicated to genuine Imperial marks only, but it is still not the main concern of this section.

Unfortunately I have no further information on the marks published here, or of similar marks but not published here, than what is already here to read. For further discussions on antique Chinese and Japanese Ceramic Art you are most welcome to visit the [ Gotheborg.com Discussion Board ].

If you would like my personal help or opinion on something there is a possibility to email me a question, send any number of pictures you like, and help support the site at the same time. Click here to [ Ask a Question ].

This page was originally set up to create a tentative chronology of 20th century Chinese Porcelain based on their marks. The periods of the 20th century I am currently trying to differentiate between are so far:

  1. Late Qing (1875-1916)
  2. Early Republic (1917-35)
  3. Late Republic (1935-49)
  4. Early PROC (1949-1966)
  5. Cultural Revolution period (1966-76)
  6. Late PROC (1976-1995)
  7. 21st Century (1995-)

Jan-Erik Nilsson
gotheborg.com



Bleu de Hue (Fr.)
19th century Chinese export porcelain for the Vietnamese market. See Glossary: Bleu de Hue for more information.
641. Mark reads Nei Fu, can be translated as "Inner Court". On Chinese "Bleu de Hue" porcelain, for the Vietnamese market. Mid 19th C.

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642. Mark reads Nei Fu, can be translated as "Inner Court". On Chinese "Bleu de Hue" porcelain, for the Vietnamese market. Late 19th C.
1276. Bowl. Mark reads Nei Fu, can be translated as "Inner Court". On Chinese "Bleu de Hue" porcelain, for the Vietnamese market. Mid 19th C.

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1277. Dish. Chinese "Bleu de Hue" porcelain, for the Vietnamese market. 18h century.

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Brown etched marks (Continue to section ->)
307. Chenghua Nian Zhi (Chenghua Period Make). Late 20th century, post "Cultural Revolution".


'Cathay' brand
1442. Serving platter. Mark: Huatai 'Cathay' Jingdezhen 'CHINA'. Top side decoration rim, simple cloud design (yunwen), m-shaped scrolls possible represents simplified bats (same-sounding as the word 'fu'- good fortune or happiness). The characters in the four white panels read counter-clockwise from bottom left wanshou wujiang - (boundless longevity). Barely visible among the fu-scrolls are two shou characters for 'longevity'. Modern, contemporary Chinese export porcelain, probably 1985-2000. Decoration occurs on porcelain from Early Republic and onwards. Earlier version are hand drawn.

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"CHINA"
The traditional wisdom has it that between around 1890 until c. 1920 all Chinese items that were to be imported into the US was required to be marked with the word "CHINA" as the country of origin (U.S. Stamp Act of 1894). Quite some uncomplicated research i. e. searching on the Internet confirms that this was not entirely true. Some were marked and some not. It is also far from certain that the practice of marking porcelain with the word CHINA actually ended in the 1920. Some porcelain I have found in Singapore marked in such way, the dealers have been very adamant that it dated to the 1970s. From 1919 the word "CHINA" should have been replaced by the phrase "Made in China" but despite this the single word "CHINA" occurred on pieces made well in to the 1960 and 1970s especially if other markets than North America are considered.
279. Probably c. 1910-20.
2. Probably 1920-1930s.
296. Probably c. 1910-30.

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66, 197, 199. Mid 20th century, c. 1950-60.
205. Mid to late 20th century, c. 1960 or later.
514. Probably c. 1930-60.

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509. Probably c. 1960-70.

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600. Probably c. 1960-70.

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637. Mistake "CHINA" mark, either genuine and then from the Guangxu /Early Republic period, or a "mock mistake" and then new. My guess c. 1930.

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Chun Lung Sang, Hong Kong decorated
"Chun Lung Sang was a large shop in Central Hong Kong, at Queen Victoria Street just opposite the Central Market. That was the main shop. There were other shops in Kowloon and New Territory. It was first owned by Mr. Li, who had been around longer than anyone could remember. In 1964 Mr. Li sold his business then located in Shan Wan, to Mr. Fung, Mr. Young, Mr. Wong and Mr. Kung (owner of the Wa Lee Co.). It was then moved to Central, and ran there from 1965 to 1995."
376. Mark: Chun Lung Sang, Ci Yi You Xian Gong Ci, Tel 436140, Chun Lung Sang Porcelain Company Ltd.

With 'lead warning' label. In 1997 a HK Concumer Council Report was released about that some decorative porcelain with heavy lead content may damage health. Labels like this seems to have been added from that time. Compare also mark # 309

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436. Mark: Chun Lung Sang. Possibly porcelain made in Japan, with thin, light, shallow foot rim. Entirely different from most HK decorated pieces.
Decorated in Hong Kong and in person dated by porcelain merchant Mr. Kung, Hong Kong, to the 1960s, while visiting his shop in 2001.

Dish "A" Click here to see large picture.
Dish "B" Click here to see large picture.



Da Ya Zhai - Grand Elegant Court (Studio of the Greater Odes)

The mark Dayazhai (Studio of the Greater Odes) has been associated with the Dowager Empress Cixi. No such hall has been identified but a wooden framed plaque has been found in the Imperial workshops, bearing the characters Dayazhai and with one of two seals reading Tiandi Yijia Chun. The findings was published in 2007, and according to the authors, in the 12th year of Tongzhi (1873) work began on the restoration of the Summer Palace Yuanmingyuan, and by 1874, the interior of the Tiandi Yijia Chun would have been in need of furnishing.

Rosemary Scott has suggested in 2008 that the new-style Dayazhai Porcelains were not produced until the Guangxu reign, and by the second year of Guangxu, 4,922 porcelains were produced bearing both Dayazhai and Tiandi Yijia Chun marks. As the restoration of the Yuanmingyuan had been halted for economic reasons, the vessels would have been delivered to the Forbidden City.

The ground colour yellow, is probably the rarest to find on Dayazhai ceramics because of the long-established Imperial connotation of using yellow on objects and textiles associated with an Emperor or Empress.

Da Ya Zhai 1478. Fish bowl. Mark: Da Ya Zhai - Grand Elegant Court. Diameter: 53.3cm (21 inch). Guangxu period.

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430. Mark: Yong Qing Chang Chun Cerebrating Forever Endless Spring. Dayazhai - Grand Elegant Court. Copy of porcelain made for the Empress Dowager Cixi, this bowl probably from the Guangxu period.

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"Daoguang" (1821-50)
480. Mark: Da Qing Daoguang Nian Zhi "Daoguang (1821-50) Period Make", but c. 1990.

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1037. Mark: Da Qing Daoguang Nian Zhi "Qing Dynasty Daoguang period make", but c. 1970-90.

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950. Mark: Peach symbol Date: Daoguang period (1821-50).

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FACTORY NAMES
114. Yi Qian Tang (factory name) Long Nian Zhi (Made in the year of the Dragon). Likely to be from the 1980s.
767. Yi Qian Tang (factory name) Long Nian Zhi - (Made in the year of the Dragon). Likely to be from the 1980s.

The porcelain figure are likely to have been made in China and decorated at the Overjoy Porcelain Factory or maybe at Ah Chou Factory (The owners of the 2 factories are related). These two porcelain decoration 'factories' specialized in decorating blank porcelain dinnerware and objects, such as the cats, flower pots, vases, candlesticks, etc., mainly for foreign "expats" who had moved to Hong Kong. The blanks for the dinnerware came from Japan, while the blanks for the other objects usually came from China. There are sample patterns, or customers can make up their own design, or the factories will also copy any pattern the customer prefers. They were proud of the fact that the enamels for decorating their wares all came from Germany, thus were safe vis a vis food consumption, unlike some of the dinnerware from China. The blue that's painted on this cat is the standard dark non-cobalt blue that they used, and still do use. If one wanted they also had a lighter cobalt blue. Info submitted by: Sarah Parnell, 2003

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113. Mark: Yi Xing Long (factory name) Zhu (made) on Fencai enamels. Flask dated 1909.

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141. Yong Ge Cai Zhung - Yong Ge Enamels Factory. 20th century.

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324. Mark: Yong Mao Yuan Ji - Yong Mao Yuan (name) Company. Possibly a late Qing Porcelain Factory. This mark could still be late 20th C.
325. Mark: Jin Tang Fu Ji - Jin Tong Fu (name) Company. Possibly a late Qing Porcelain Factory. This mark could still be late 20th C.
327. Mark: Bao Zhu Li Ji - Bao Zhu Li (name) Company. Possibly late 20th C.
333. Mark: Shun Li Kun Ji - Shun Li Kun Company. "Shun Li" = smooth, easy, "Kun" is a single word name, "Ji" = company. Late 19th/early 20th century, before 1920.

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294. Mark: Cao Kun Chang Zao - Cao Kun Chang (Company) Made. Mark is of good quality but rubber stamped. Coral red bowl with incised dragon. 1910-30.
187. Mark: Mo Rong Chang Zao - Mo Rong Chang (Company) Made. Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
159. Mark: Zhang Sen Han (Company) Zao (Made). 1960s, decorated in Hong Kong?
386. Mark: Luo Fa Tai Zao - Luo Fa Tai (Factory) Made. Probably 1950s
319. Mark: Guang Lee Chang Hui - Guang Lee Factory Painted. 1960.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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392. Mark: Yi Xing Cai Ci - Yi Xing Company Enamel Porcelains. Tentative date 1980 or later.
1290. Mark: Zhui Shi Cai Ci - Zhui Shi Company Enamel Porcelain. Tentative date 1950s or earlier.

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395. Mark: Xu Qian Shi Ci. The three first characters (Xu Qian Shi) are a name and the forth, "Qi", means just "porcelain". Modern mark, last decades of the 20th century.
570. Mark: Diao Yu Tai Guo Bin Guan and Tao Ci Yan Jiu Suo. "Diao Yu Tai" is where all the foreign important people are treated and met. Guo Bin Guan means "State Guests Lodge" and Tao Ci Yan Jiu Suo means "Ceramics Research Institute". Dated 1962.

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428. Mark: Jiangxi Sheng Jingdezhen Shi Gong Yi Mei Shu Ge Zuo Gong Chang -"Jiangxi Province, Jingdezhen City, Arts and Crafts Cooperative Factory.", mid 1950s.

This mark belongs to a period when private kilns at Jingdezhen were organized as cooperatives. The cooperative movement at Jingdezhen began in late 1952, continuing into 1956, maybe into 1957. In this mark the name for cooperative he zuo she is abbreviated to he zuo. The character for factory chang is not yet simplified as it would be with the introduction of simplified characters in 1956. (Information courtesy of Freda Murck, Beijing, 2004)

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Guangdong Gong Yi - Canton Art
119. Guangdong Gong Yi (Canton Art) on bowl with Rose Mandarin decoration, supplemented with sticker saying "decorated in Macau". Mid 20th century. The sticker might have been applied for the purpose of avoiding tax, since it actually are a sticker and not stamp, and the whole thing might be from Canton anyway.


Guangdong Qi Chang - (Guangdong Porcelain Factory)
38. Mark: Guangdong Qi Chang - (Guangdong Porcelain Factory). Late 19th-20th century.


Guangxu Nian Zao (1875-1908)
408. Guangxu Nian Zao - (1875-1908). Export quality, genuine mark and of the period, dated 1887. Qiangjing enamels, text on the sides reads "Painted by Li Yan Qing in 1887".

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Text scan 1
Text scan 2
Text scan 3

285. Guangxu Nian Zao - (1875-1908). Export quality, genuine mark and of the period, probably last decades of the 19th century.

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194, 209. Stamped mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - "Guangxu period (1875-1908) made" with "CHINA" export mark. 20th century.
585. Mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - "Guangxu period (1875-1908) made". Second quarter of the 20th century.

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630. Dated in the inscription Republic 23rd year March Lin Dong made in Nanchong Mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - "Guangxu period (1875-1908) made" but dated in the inscription to 1934.

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381. Mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - "Guangxu period (1875-1908) made". Late 20th century?
763. Guang Xu Qing Yu Tang Cang - "From the Guangxu Collection of the Hall for Celebrating Surplus" or "hall of celebrating bounteous harvest". Date uncertain.

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1322. Footed bowl. Mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - (1875-1908). Peoples ware. Iron red stamped seal script mark. Probably Guangxu period.

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1364. Dish. Mark: Da Qing Guangxu Nian Zhi - (1875-1908). Peoples ware. Iron red stamped seal script mark. Probably Guangxu period.

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1415. Small vase w elephant handles. Mark: Iron red stamped seal mark Guangxu Nian Zhi - (1875-1908). Decoration signed by Xu Pinheng. On the opposite side a verse. Date c. 1895.

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Guan yao nei zao - "Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace"
671. Three lobed bowl, with calligraphy in dull black enamel "Flowers dancing in the breeze, Spring arrives, birds find their tunes", dated "1892". Red base mark Guan yao nei zao - (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace) same as #660, dated 1903.

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686. Bowl. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao - (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace). Dated mid summer 1895. Inscription reads Shi Zai (at the time of) Yi Wei (matching year 1895) Zhong Qiu (mid summer) Qing Shu (Artist name).

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660. Small vase with elephant handles, with long trunks. Calligraphy in dull black enamel, dated 1903. The yellow bird is probably "The Great Spring Scholar" which singing signals the arrival of Spring. Red base mark Guan yao nei zao - (Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace) same as #671

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1155. Six sided hatstand with six medallion shaped openings. Decorated with bird and flowers on one side and a landsscape on the other side. Later qianjiang style. Red base mark Guan Yao Nei Zao meaning 'Imperial Kiln for Inner Palace'. Mark occurs in-between c. 1890 to 1903.

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Hall's / Buyer's names
562. Shi Jin Tang Zhi ,-"Shi" means generations, "Jin" means glory, forever glories? Probably early Republic, c. 1910-30.
288. Xushenfang Zhi - "Xu Shen Estate Ordered / made to order by Xu Shen House". Probably early Republic, c. 1920.
440. Plate says: Ru Yi Ji Xiang , common greetings. Mark says : Gui Fang Chun Guan where Gui - (gather) Fang - (fragrant) could be a girl's name, Chun is spring, young, tender, joy and Guan is an inn or a lodge. Tentative translations "Gui Fang's maiden lodge" or "The Spring Manse of Gathered Scents". Possibly Daoguang (1821-1850) period.

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291. "Guyue Xuan", Mark on Chinese Snuff Bottle, Glass, 20th century.

    Since this is a modern piece the details on the "Guyue Xuan" will be dealt with at some other time and place. To summarize "Guyue Xuan" might be a Qing Court room, but no evidence has been established. Some have it, it was made by a master potter of the Qing Court named "Wu", as "Gu Yue" put together becomes "Wu", which is a common surname. Some are satisfied by "Guyue Xuan" as a referral to a particular enamels decoration.

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292. Mark: Da Xiong Bao Dian. "The hall of great elegance" Litt.: "Great Mighty Holy Temple". Mid to late 20th century date.

Buddhist temples are made up of several buildings, of which any central temple would have this name displayed right across at the top center. See also # 305.

286. Mark: Yi Xiang Yuan Joy Beauty Garden / Paradise of Joy and Beauty. Mark on Chinese porcelain erotic cup. 1970 or later.
284. Transformed style of seal mark, hard to make out the meaning but, could be "Hall of Hundred Tortoises". It is 20th century and could quite possibly be a Japanese mark imitating a Chinese. The cut off corners of the double framed seal is a significant feature which the painter seems to be unaware of.
323. Re Shen Zhen Cang,-"Re Shen (name) Precious Treasure". This mark is found on a large group of blue & white porcelain. The mark first appeared in the Kangxi period and became popular in the Late Qing to the Early Republic period (1900-1950). Widely used in modern replicas.


Hong Kong, Decorated in (written in Western characters)
Since adding enameled decoration on white porcelain is a small scale business that could be set up anywhere with very little capital, porcelain decorators probably moved from Canton to Hong Kong to set up shop there immediately by the time of its founding in the 19th century.

The Hong Kong porcelain trade hit its peak in the 1960s, with just over a hundred workshops in the Territory only. At this time the demand for Hong Kong decorated porcelain forced the workshops to also import white porcelain from Japan to be decorated in Hong Kong. Some trading agents specifically ordered plain porcelain from Japan. The quality and price appears to have been the same as the Chinese.

The porcelain trade thrived until the 1970s when trade, stocks and shares and the whole city began to take off in mid 80s, gradually making the HK properties the most expensive in the world. At this time porcelain trading, who requires large shop areas, was gradually pushed out of the game.

Under this headline we will try collect all marks used by the Hong Kong enameling workshops.

368. Stanley, Hand Decorated in Hong Kong. Mid 20th century.
56. W.S.L. DECORATED IN HONG KONG
179. "Decorated in Hong Kong", mark on modern porcelain spoon
272. "Decorated in Hong Kong", mark on porcelain dish dated by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong, to 1960.

Two dishes and marks # 272 and # 273
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143. W.B.I. MADE IN CHINA. Appears to be a Canton or Hong Kong enameled vase. Early to mid 20th century.
146. "Y.T. Decorated in Hong Kong". Modern "Rose Medallion" plate. Late 20th century.
924. Mark: "Y.T. Decorated in Hong Kong". Modern "Rose Medallion" plate. Late 20th century.

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262. Mark: Hong Kong Wing Suen Lung Added Enamels. "Wing Suen Lung Factory" was owned by Mr Seto in Sai Wan Ho, East part of HK island in the 1950s. Mr. Seto ceased the business and immigrated to Canada in 1965. Date c. 1960.

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712. Mark: "AFC-Decorated in Hong Kong", Date: Fourth quarter of 20th century.
1395. Dish. Printed mark in good quality: ACF, Japanese Porcelain Ware, Decorated in Hong Kong. Date: Most likely around 1970.

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1460. Dish. Printed mark in good quality: ACF, Japanese Porcelain Ware, Decorated in Hong Kong. Date: Most likely around 1970.

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Hong Kong, Decorated in, on Japanese Porcelain
264. The plate imported from Japan. Enamels added in Hong Kong. CLS is the Export company or the trading agent / company (1960).

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1256. Vase blank imported from Japan with its enamels added in Hong Kong. c. 1960-70.

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Hong Kong, Made in
1288. "Made in Hong Kong" According to family history this was ordered from China in the early 1950s.

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Hongxian Nian Zhi (1916)
This mark should if correct, date to the year 1916 when Yuan Shikai made himself the Emperor of China after the Qing Dynasty was overthrown by Dr. Sun Yat-Sen in 1911. His Empire was soon ended in March 1916 and his period lasted less than 100 days. The 20 November 1915 Yuan held a political convention which endorsed monarchy. By 12 December, he proclaimed his reign as Emperor of the Chinese Empire under the era name of Hongxian i.e. "Constitutional Abundance" to begin on 1 January 1916. Due to massive opposition funding for the ceremony was cut on March 1st and he abandoned monarchism on March 22 after which he eventually died, humiliated, on the 5th of June. It is my opinion, that none of these marks actually dates to the Hongxian period but probably not earlier than the 1930s.
100. Hongxian Nian Zhi (Hongxian Period Make). The mark probably from the 1930's


Hua Ping Tang Zhi - Hua Ping Hall Make
Non typical Chinese ware with thinly applied enamels. Similar to the WL1895 wares and also to the Hong Kong manufacturer United Wilson. All pieces with marks of this kind appears to date to the last quarter of the 20th century.
769. Mark: Hua Ping Tang Zhi - Hua "China", "Magnificent", Ping "even", "level", "democratic" or a surname, Tang "Hall", Zhi made. Submitted picture very small but if the enamels are very thin the decoration is probably printed and the tureen should date to 1975-2000.
605. Date: Probably 1970 or later.

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926. Date: Probably 1970 or later.

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1094. Date: Probably 1970 or later.

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1472. Date: Probably 1970 or later.

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Impressed marks
1468. Mark: Jiangxi (province), You Long Sheng (shop name), Jing (de) zheng (town)

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579. South Chinese, Shekwan - (Shiwan), mid to late 20th century.

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1464. Chinese figures, two of The Eight Daoist (Taoist) Immortals - Ba xian - He Xiangu and Lan Caihe, mid to late 20th century. Mark "CHINA" and a factory name. Text written from right to left. Tentative date mid to late 20th century.

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787. Mark: Guan, "Imperial". Modern, Longquan (Celadon) ware, probably year 2000 or later. Similar mark is also found on white wares with blue and red decoration inside the porcelain. Also modern ware.

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127. "Hua Shan" were Shan=mountain. Hua Shan is a well known mountain, renown for its beautiful pine trees and breath taking scenery, in Shaanxi Province. Here probably used as a brand or factory name. Late 20th century.

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709. Mark: He Yu - "He" Jade. Shiwan pottery candlestick. The mark and tidy round hole in the base points at a mid 20th century date.
434. Mark: "Pottery Studio / Home". Modern, made in Taiwan?
371. Possibly an effort to copy a "Wang Bing Rong" mark.
112. Wang Bing Rong Zhi (Wang Bing Rong Made). Mark probably early to mid 20th century.
280. Wang Bing Rong Zuo (Wang Bing Rong Made). Note the use of "Zuo" (created) rather than the more profane "Zhi" (made). Mark probably from mid 20th century.
125. Wang Bing Rong Zuo (Wang Bing Rong Made), a notable potter specializing in porcelain with carved decoration, almost like ivory carvings, active in Tongzhi to Guangxu period (1862-1908). Note the use of "Zuo" (created) rather than the more profane "Zhi" (made). Mark from the period.
256. Nie Mu Hua Zao (Nie Mu Hua Made). Probably mid 20th century, mark looks "pre cultural revolution" in style.
105, 106. Yu Sang Sing (factory name) Zuo (made). For 18th-early 20th century factory marks; very often the factory was named after the founder. Yu Sang Sing was most likely founded by "Yu Sang Sing". This mark is combined with an impressed "CHINA" mark on the base of an enameled Phoenix bird. Second quarter of the 20th century.
1243. Figure with enamel decoration. Date: probably third quarter of the 20th century.

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321. Vase, "Peking glass" with lid. Mark: Daoguang Nian Zhi "Daoguang (1821-50) Period Make", but probably 1910-30.
76. Zhu Mao Ji Zuo - "Zhu Mao Company (Ji = Company) Made". A character by the left side of Zhu Mao Ji Zuo looks like " Jin Zhen", probably Jingdezhen. Molded figure, probably Guangxu period or slightly later. For 18th-early 20th century factory marks; very often the factory was named after the founder - Zhu Mao Ji was most likely founded by "Zhu Mao".

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391. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi. Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Probably late 19th-early 20th century.
705. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made".

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195. Fu Jin Hui Guan (Fujian Club) You Chang Zi Zao (You Chang Zi Made).
You Chang Zi (1874-1922) was born in Fujin, came to Jingdezhen in around 1913, worked in Fujian Club for about nine years until he passed away in 1922 at the age of only 48. He was widely recognized the best porcelain sculptor in Jingdezhen at the time. Acording to a local saying You Chang Zi liked to give his figures a face in the image of himself. The mark is sought after but seems to have been widely copied.
577. "Wai Ming", Hong Kong. Late 20th C.

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766.

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744.

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Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi
"Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi" (Jiangxi Porcelain company) was the largest porcelain factory in Jingdezhen during the first half of the 20th century and in general felt being the organization that replaced and absorbed much of the talent and resources from the Imperial porcelain factory when it fell in abandonment after the fall of the Qing dynasty. It was established in 1910 and eventually nationalized and its name changed to Jianguo Cichang in 1949.
169. Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi (Jiangxi Porcelain company). The most important factory in Jingdezhen. Established in 1910, nationalized and its name changed to Jianguo Cichang in 1949. This mark probably somehow related to #158.
308. Jiangxi Ciye Gongsi (Jiangxi Porcelain company). Early to mid 20th C ?


Jiangxi Jingdezhen Chu Pin (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Production)
216. Mark: Jiangxi Jingdezhen Chu Pin (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Production)


Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci - (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain)
437. Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain).
The mark says Jiangxi but acording to HK porcelain dealer Mr. Kong, this is painted in HK. Style and enamels do looks HK. Note absence of factory #.

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Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci # - (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain Factory #)

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213. Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain). Factory # 1.


Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci # Hao Cai - (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain # enamel pattern)

438 1,b. Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci 3 Hao Cai - "Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain # 2 Enamel Pattern" and same, Pattern # 3. Strangely enough the "pattern #" are different but the bowls are identical. Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1960s.

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211. Mark: Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci 3 Hao Cai (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain No.6 enamel pattern). Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1960s.
162. Mark: Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci 6 Hao Cai (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain No.6 enamel pattern). Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1960s.
337. Mark: Jiangxi Jingdezhen Min Ci 8 Hao Cai (Jiangxi Jingdezhen Reputable Porcelain No.8 enamel pattern). Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1960s.

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Jiaqing Nian Zhi, Da Qing
Mark referring to the Qing dynasty Jiaqing period 1796-1820 but is later. During the 1960s to 70s this was a common mark on porelain made in China but decorated in Macao or Hong Kong.
760. Mark: Da Qing Jiaqing Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Jiaqing period (1796-1820) made". Inside the neck a sticker saying, Made in Hong Kong. Tentative date c. 1960-70's. Beside that the sticker indicates Hong Kong, this mark seems to be uniquely connected to Macau. See also "Macau Style" marks.

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251. Mark: Da Qing Jiaqing Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Jiaqing period (1796-1820) made" but probably mid to late 20th century.
593. Mark: Da Qing Jiaqing Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Jiaqing period (1796-1820) made" but c. 1980-90.

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Jingdezhen Ci Ye Gong Si Chu Pin (Jingdezhen Porcelain Company Production)
158. Mark: Jingdezhen Ci Ye Gong Si Chu Pin - Jingdezhen Porcelain Company Production. Mark probably somehow related to # 169.


Jingdezhen Zhi - Jingdezhen Make
8. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Jingdezhen Make. Tentative date: Second half of 20th century.
111. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Jingdezhen Make. Date: c. 1950.

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252. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Jingdezhen Make. Date: c. 1995.
92. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Jingdezhen Make. Date: 1950-70 ?
96. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Jingdezhen Make. Date: c. 1970
122. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Jingdezhen Make. Date: bought new in Jingedezhen 1992. Underglaze blue and white eggshell bowl.
878. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Jingdezhen Make. Date: 1950 or later.

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1101. Mark: Jingdezhen Zhi meaning: Jingdezhen Make. The characters are written in traditional Chinese and perhaps infer for this reason the piece is older than the mid-50's, but traditional characters are often used in mainland China for shop names, invitations, calligraphy, etc. Date: Contemporary.

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Jiujiang Chan Yucheng You Zao - ("You" short for "youxian gongsi" meaning ltd. or inc.)
1431. Mark: Jiujiang Chan Yucheng You Zao - ("You" short for "youxian gongsi" meaning ltd. or inc.) Date: Style of decoration consitent with a date around 1912.

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Jurentang
Research indicates that "Juren Tang" in Zhongnanhai was the building where Yuan Shikai lived and where he had his office around 1915. Guo Baochang, an antique dealer with a good relation to the court, was appointed to arrange for imperial Hongxian wares being made in 1916. What really came out of this is still debated. One opinion is that no pieces bearing the Hongxian mark is of the period, the only possibly genuine mark of the period being "Jurentang", if any.
418. "Jurentang" mark. Republic period. Family tradition has it that this vase "was originally made for an imperial or high level government official". The vase could be traced back in the family to mid 1920's-mid 1940's.

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328. "Jurentang" 1980 or later.
329. "Jurentang" mark 1960 or later. Interestingly enough the front page of the plate seems to be from 1900-1920 while the foot rim and the flowers scrolls on the back side of the dish gives it away as 1960s or later too.

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Kangxi (For genuine marks of the period, see Qing dynasty page)

Kangxi marks are by far the richest group compared to all other period marks. Many also consider Kangxi porcelain the peak of Chinese porcelain and some Kangxi fakes are the most difficult of all to tell.

Genuine marks from the period: During most of the Kangxi reign the emperor's mark was not allowed to be used, so other symbols, or frequently the nian hao of the Ming emperor Chenghua's period took its place. There could also be used just two empty circles with no mark within, or even no mark at all, or 4 character hallmarks or other symbols or marks of commendation. Late in the period the order was rescinded and a 6-character reign mark was permitted. The only time a Kangxi Imperial mark appeared without the circles was on the peach bloom wares and certain other scholar's table items and it is (almost) always 6 characters, written either in two horizontal lines or two vertical columns. Some Imperial pieces decorated at the Palace Workshops that were made late in the reign had a four character reign mark, but they are always enclosed by a double square and are almost always written in over glaze blue enamel.

Copies and later marks: As a general rule, all four character Kangxi Nian Zhi marks written inside double circles or without circles are from the end of the 19th century or later. Items made in the manner of or style of Kangxi in the 19th C many times do have four character reign marks. This makes it easy to tell at a glance in most cases whether the piece is really from the Kangxi period or not. Some of these pieces are very close in style to the originals but if you compare them to genuine Kangxi wares the paste, glaze, footrim and the blue is different.

Crude attempts to mimic Imperial marks are sometimes found on minyao wares but generally this is not the case on export wares, as most bear no marks. Red four character Kangxi Nian Zhi marks within a square becomes particularly popular during the 1970s.

572. Kangxi Nian Zhi -"Kangxi Period Make". C. 1900-1910.

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401. Kangxi Nian Zuo - "Kangxi Period Make". Early 20th Century.
336. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make", c. 1920.

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797. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make". Early 20th century, c 1920

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675. Mark: Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make" but c. 1880.

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732. Mark: Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make" but c. 1900.

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676. Mark: Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make" but from the Guangxu period, c. 1890.

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90. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make"
332. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make", 1960s.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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273. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make", c. 1960.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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259. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make", c. 1970.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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331. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make", 1960s.
This dish is decorated in Hong Kong and the date suggested by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.
The line "ABRIGADO EM MACAO" (Greetings From Macau) mark could be a tax or export consideration.
412. Lidded Jar. Kangxi Yu Zhi - "Made to the order of the Emperor Kangxi". Late 20th century.
695. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make", probably c. 1960s

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571. Mark: Da Qing Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing dynasty Kangxi Period Make". 20th century.

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816. Mark: Da Qing Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing dynasty Kangxi Period Make". Probably 1890-1910

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780. Mark: Da Qing Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing dynasty Kangxi Period Make". Mark with typical "hollow line". Date probably first decades of the 20th century, 1900-1930.

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1235. Mark: Da Qing Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing dynasty Kangxi Period Make". Probably after Cultural Revolution, second half 20th century.

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322. Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make". Mid 19th century to possibly early 20th century.
1221. Tea canister, mark: Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make". Date: Mid 20th century.

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1376. Ginger jar with traditional "prunus/plum blossom" decoration. Mark: Kangxi Nian Zhi - "Kangxi Period Make". Date: Mid 20th century before 1975, and then probably also before the Cultural Revolution (1965-75).

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"Made in China"
From 1919 "CHINA" was to be replaced by "Made in China" on all Chinese export to the US. Even if "CHINA" continued to be used for a long time, we can still assume that no marks with the full text "Made in China" is from before 1919 and more likely to be from the second WW or later.
1465. Mid 20th century 1930s to 1960s.

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494. Late 20th century. Tentative date 1980s.

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290. Mid 20th century, probably 1960s.
631. Dated in the inscription to 1936. Mark: Made in China

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1105. Mark: Made in China, tentative date 1930s, possible slightly before WWII.

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560. Mark: Hand-painted decoration, Made in China. Probably 1960s.
442. Mark:

Hand painted Made in China

, Mid 20 century, probably 1960s or later.
3. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period Make". Export seal mark. "MADE IN CHINA". In the smudged area between "MA(DE IN) CHINA" and the seal mark, there seems to be the beginning of "Zhongguo (.. Jingdezhen China?)" which would indicate a date from the 1950s until present. Mid 20th century.

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168. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period Make". (Da Qing omitted) Tentative date: Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1950s.


Ming - Marks including the character or a period, but from Qing or later

Go to MING PERIOD MARKS HERE

All marks in this section are somehow referring to the Ming dynasty. They are with no exceptions from after the Ming dynasty and up until today in some cases. Real MING marks that actually are of the period, plus a type chart, is available here >>
107. Mark: Da Ming Chenghua Nian Zhi (Great Ming Chenghua Period Make). Late 19th century, probably around 1860's.
673. Mark: Chenghua Nian Zhi (Chenghua Period Make). Probably Guangxu (1875-1908) period.

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275. Mark: Chenghua Nian Zhi (Chenghua Period Make). Probably second half of 19th century, "Kangxi revival" period.

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532. Mark: Chenghua Nian Zhi, Before 1910, probably Guangxu period (1875-1908)

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396. Mark: Xuande Nian Zhi (Xuande Period Make). Second quarter 20th Century.
301. Mark: Da Ming Chenghua Nian Zhi - "Ming Dynasty Chenghua Period Make". This is possibly from the 1990's. After Simon Kwan's exhibition of 20th century high quality porcelain even late pieces were immitated and this might be one of them.

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1349. Mark: Da Ming Chenghua Nian Zhi - "Ming Dynasty Chenghua Period Make". Mark appears to actually be printed, date probaly contemporary.

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625. Mark: Yongle Nian Zhi - (Yongle Period Make), but modern-c. 1990's. The bowl possibly made in Thailand.
773. Mark: Yongle Nian Zhi - (Yongle Period Make), but modern-c. 1990's. The bowl possibly made in Thailand.

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383. Mark: Yong Le Nian Zhi - (Yongle Period Make).
265. Mark: Yongle Nian Zhi (Yongle Period Make) Mid 20th Century. (The bowl surprisingly comfortable to drink tea out of.)

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300. Mark: Da Ming Chenghua Nian Zhi. Probably last quarter of 20th century.

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491. Mark: Da Ming Chenghua Nian Zhi but probably 1990's.

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492. Mark: Da Ming Nian Zhu - Great Ming Period Make. Modern ?

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496. Mark: Da Ming Jiajing Nian Zhu - "Great Ming Jiajing (1522-1566) Period Make". Modern.

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372. Mark: Chongzhen Nian Zhi, "Chongzhen (1628-44) Period Make". The mark appears as written by somebody who do not know Chinese even if the "Nian" character is good. Uncertain date.


Nanjing Road (Shanghai)
208. Mark: "Nanjing Road", famous business street in Shanghai, was at the height of its glory 1928-1938.


PIN - 品-"Precious Product"
400. Bowl with 'rice grain' decoration. Mark: Zhonghua Zhen Pin China Precious Product. Early 20th Century.
1184. Mark: Zhonghua Zhen Pin 珍品 "China Precious Product. Early 20th Century.

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426. Base: Daxin Zhen Pin "Daxin Precious product".
Inside: Daxin Gongsi "Daxin Department Store", Huan Qiu Shi Pin "Global Food Product".

    Daxin Department Store was one of the biggest and most prestigious department stores at the time, like Harrods and Selfridges of London, with shop in, I believe in Shanghai, HK and Singapore. Large department stores in Shanghai were first established by foreign investors. After 1916, local companies established successively four department stores at Nanjing Lu - Wings, Sincere, Xin Xin, and Daxin -- each of which covered an area over ten-thousand square meters. The stores strove to compete with one another by enhancing both quantity and quality of commodity, services and facilities. A new style of consumption was thus formed. Shopping or window shopping on weekends became a popular life style in the city. Around year 2000 Daxin, now "Number One Department Store" was the largest department store in China.

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508. Mark: Jiangxi Sincere Chu Pin "Jiangxi Sincere Production" (2nd Quarter 20th C.)

    The first official Hong Kong Schools Sports Day was held on 29th Nov 1933. In the prize donation inventory, it was recorded three of the Four Super Department Stores had made a contribution. They were Sincere, Da Xin, Zhonghua Bai Huo. (The remaining company is likely to be "Wing On")
    Source: HK Central Roads and Streets History, Joint Publishing (HK) Co Ltd, 1989.

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518. Mark: Mao Yuan Chu Pin- "Mao Yuan" product, where "Mao Yuan" is the artist 's name. Possibly 1940-50's.

    The additional characters on the bowl are, horizontal from right : Guan Jia Yi Pin-Official Title increased by one rank.
    Vertical: Jiangxi (surname) / Mao Yuan / Ke-Jiangxi Province (surname) / Mao Yuan / Guest.
    As for the "Ke = guest", many porcelain painters tried to make a living in Jiangxi during the Republic period, they came from other provinces and hoped they did not have to stay too long. They liked to address themselves as Guest Artists, showing their home coming desire.

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384. Qiang Yi Tong / Zhen Cang Pin "Qiang Yi Hall Precious Treasure".
130. Yu Yao / Zhen Pin "Imperial Kiln Precious Products". For reference, Zhen appeared in #116, Pin appeared in #68.
68. Jiangxi / Wan Yi Fa / Chu Pin "Jiangxi Province Products, Wan Yee Fa Company". Mid 20th century.
330. Jiangxi / Min Zheng Xing / Chu Pin - "Jiangxi Province / Min Zheng Xing (name) / Products". Nanchang. Second quarter of 20th c. before 1949.

    This mark was used by Mr. Min Zheng Xing - (name) in his porcelain shop in Nanchang, Jiangxi province. At this time the Wa Lee Factory was still in Nanchang. In 1947 the Wa Lee Factory moved to Canton "near the end of the Yi De Road" and in 1949 moved on to Hong Kong. Meanwhile Min Zheng Xing remained in Jiangxi. Around 1951 to 1952 Min Zheng Xing "who also was an accomplished porcelain painter" travelled to HK once, trying to sell his Nanchang factory porcelains. Mr. Kung "treated him and took him around, but with little success since the times were difficult in HK too". (Source: Simon Ng interview w Mr Kung, HK 2001.)

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429. Mark: Jiangxi / Xia Yong Xing / Chu Pin "Jiangxi Xia Yong Xing Production".

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QING DYNASTY

TYPE CHART QING DYNASTY PERIOD MARKS AVAILABLE HERE >>

The best way to organize Qing dynasty seems for now to be by style. Seal marks are in the style of a seal and not difficult to tell. Song marks are in a hand written form and in Song's style of writing, then there is Ming, Qing, Republic, modern and after Cultural Revolution style of writings etc, this is a most specialized and difficult subject, and no books has as far as we know dared to touch on this yet, but being a true Viking I'll go about doing this soon, with the help of my Chinese speaking friends, who often can read even the most obscure renderings.


Qianlong Nian Zhi - Qianlong Period Make
In these marks the name of the dynasty, Da Qing - (Great Qing), is omitted, which usually is a pretty surefire sign that the mark is not of the period. All marks below are not of the period. See individual marks below for approximate date.
Following marks are in zhuanshu - (archaic seal script) which technically speaking is drawing, and not 'hand-writing' per se. None of the following marks are of the Qianlong period despite that they say so. See comments next to each individual mark for an approximate date.
193. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period Make". Stamped seal mark. Mid 20th century
339. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi, "Qianlong Period Make". Modern mark, after 1960.
420. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period Make". Early to mid 20th century.
521. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong (1736-1795) Period Make". Seemingly authentic Straits Chinese market porcelain.

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254. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Ca. 1990-95.
248. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make".
Following marks are in Kaishu - (normal script) style. This is the present-day regular script, which has been in existence now for almost 2000 years. As opposed to seal script, which is drawing, this is hand writing. None of the following marks are of the Qianlong period despite that they say so. See comments next to each individual mark for an approximate date.
1394. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period, Made", tentative date Early Republic, c. 1930

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260. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period, Made", 1970.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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335. "Qianlong Nian Zhi" "Qianlong Period Make". From the 'realistic' look of the decoration despite the small scale of the available picture, I would like to suggest a date to around 1950s on this piece.
1089. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi-Qianlong Period Make, early second half of 20th century. The crisp and slightly 'naïf' style of the decoration is charateristic of the period immediately before the cultural revolution.

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1377. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period (1736-1795) Make". The crisp and slightly 'naïf' style of the decoration is characteristic of the period before the cultural revolution that started in 1965. The use of black and orange rust colored enamels is very typical of the very last years of the 1940s. Date: Mid 20th century. .

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414. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Qianlong Period Make. Due to the shaky lines in the decoration I would like to suggest a date on this vase to around the 1970s or later.

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1372. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Qianlong Period Make. Japanese moriage decoration imitation. Suggested date; 1990s or later.

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1073. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - Qianlong Period Make. Second half of 20th century. Due to the shaky lines in the decoration I would even like to suggest a date on this vase to around the 1970s or later.

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311. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - C. 1990-95.
253. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - c. 1990-95.
304. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make". Stamped export seal mark with "MADE IN CHINA". The "poisonious glaze" warning label seems to indicate a date after 1970.
315. "Qianlong Nian Zhi", Close resemblance to mark # 314, enamels added in Hong Kong 1960 by Wa Lee Company.

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316. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi-Enamels added in Hong Kong, 1960 by Wa Lee Company.

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320. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi-Enamels added in Hong Kong, 1960 by Wa Lee Company.

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318. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi-Enamels added in Hong Kong, 1960 by Wa Lee Company.

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422. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make".
255. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make".
198. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make".
132. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make".Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make". Probably early 20th century.
87. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make". The special calligraphy of this mark should be compared to # 134, 115 and 263. For the time being I would like to suggest that this mark is a Hong Kong mark from the 1960s.
397. Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make". Mid 20th Century.
405. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make". Late 20th century.

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Bowl, Qianlong Nian Zhi Spoon, Qianlong Nian Zhi 1482. Bowl and 1481. Spoon. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi "Qianlong Period Make". According to family documents this set was taken out of China just prior to 1949. Good quality decoration with hand drawn outlines and decoration in opaque famille rose enamels. The inside of the bowl is plain white exactly the same as the bottom of the spoon (a very few flecks of brown). Tentative date are the 1940s, not later than 1949.

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Qianlong Nian Zhi, Da Qing - Qianlong Period Make, Great Qing Dynasty
These six character marks follow the traditional way of drawing seal marks in archaic seal script, zhuanshu, from the Qianlong period 1736-1795. The manner is a drawing more like an engraving rather than actual hand writing. None of the following marks are of the Qianlong period despite that they say so. See comments next to each individual mark for an approximate date.
261. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made", 1970.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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340. "Qianlong Nian Zhi" "Qianlong Period Make". Modern mark, after 1960.
247. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Tentative period 1950-75.
419. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi, "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Mid 20th Century. Marks with this wide frame is likely to be from after the 1960s and should be compared to the Macau style marks.

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602. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi Date 1940's before 1949.
Cf., HA van Oort, pp. 165-167.

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373. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Porcelain with this "hard" color scheme seems to be contemporary with the influence from Russia in the 1950s. Note the black top rim ruyi border, cf. #261 (1970) and #501 (1966-76). Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966).

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65. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi- Blue and white chinese export porcelain replica/emulation. Note the crackled glaze. Late 20th/early 21th century.
1030. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi-(Chinese emperor Qianlong period make) but unfortunately not of the period. It is a Chinese new decorative ware not older than the 1970s.
85. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Probably 20th century.
339. "Qianlong Nian Zhi" "Qianlong Period Make". Modern mark, after 1960.
340. "Qianlong Nian Zhi" "Qianlong Period Make". Modern mark, after 1960.
Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi 1488. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made", Mark stamped with double outlines. Tentative date Guangxu period 1875-1908.

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317. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made", 1960.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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168. Mark: Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Qianlong Period Make". (Da Qing omitted) Tentative date: Early Peoples Republic period (1949-1966), probably 1950s.
733. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Tentative date: 1960s. period.

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317. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made", 1960.
Decorated in Hong Kong.
Date by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong.

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1410. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made". Possibly decorated in Hong Kong, around 1960-90.

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313. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made"
Information gained by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong, this is decorated in Hong Kong around 1960.

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1078. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Dynasty, Qianlong Period, Made"
Probably decorated in Hong Kong around 1960.

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77. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Gu Gong Fu Zhi (Palace Museum Replica Producation), Before 1990.
172. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Mid 20th century or later.
281. Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Plate probably from the 1930-40's period.
413. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi- "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make".
297. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi- "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Probably 3rd quarter of 20th century.

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Kaishu - (normal script) style. As opposed to seal script, which is drawing, this is hand writing
733. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Tentative date: 1960s. period.

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282. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi. Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Black gilded lidded jar, tentative date 1950's-60's
184. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi. Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Modern Chinese porcelain spoon. Date: Late 1960s to c. 1990.
513. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi. Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Modern Chinese porcelain spoon. Date: Late 1960s to c. 1990.
403. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi, Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Date: Late 1960s to c. 1990.
377. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi, Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Date: Late 1960s to c. 1990.
914. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong Nian Zhi, Meaning: "Great Qing Qianlong Period Make". Date: Late 1960s to c. 1990.

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Qianlong Yu Zhi - Qianlong Imperial Make
In these marks the dynasty Da Qing - (Great Qing) is omitted, which usually is a pretty surefire sign that the mark is not of the period. No marks below are of the period. See individual marks below for approximate date
1337. Mark: Qianlong Yu Zhi where 'Yu' is, 'by the order of the Emporor' or 'Made to the order of the Qianlong Emperor'. This mark is in the style of Qing 'Guan' (Imperial) pieces. My best guess for a date is around 1980-90 considering the printed outlines of the decoration. .

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305. Mark: Qianlong Yu Zhi where 'Yu' is, 'by the order of the Emperor' or 'Made to the order of the Qianlong Emperor'. This mark is in the style of Qing 'Guan' (Imperial) pieces. Probably c. 1980-90..

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843. Mark: Qianlong Yu Zhi where 'Yu' is, 'by the order of the Emporor' or 'Made to the order of the Qianlong Emperor'. This mark is in the style of Qing 'Guan' (Imperial) pieces. Probably c. 1980-90..

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1332. Teapot or wine warmer. Mark: Qianlong Yu Zhi where 'Yu' is, 'by the order of the Emperor' or 'Made to the order of the Qianlong Emperor'. This mark is in the style of Qing 'Guan' (Imperial) pieces. Probably c. 1980-90..

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947. "Qianlong Yu Zhi" where Yu is, by the order of the Emperor. (Made to the order of Emperor Qianlong). This mark is in the style of Qing Guan pieces. Probably c. 1960-80.

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310. Mark: Qianlong Yu Zhi - "Made to the order of the Emperor Qianlong".

1990-2000.



Qianlong, Da Qing
The mark is referring to the Qianlong period (1736-1795) during the Qing dynasty. However, in these marks the Nian Zhi [period make] of the regular mark is omitted. So far I have not seen any mark of this type that appears to be older than the 1970s. It is worth remembering that during 1965-70 was the period of the 'Glorious Cultural Revolution' in China and not much porcelain, and certainly not any with any Imperial references, was made inside China proper during this time. I think that any porcelain with Imperial Chinese references in the mark had their decoration added outside of China.
134. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong - "Great Qing Dynasty Qianlong Period"
382. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong - "Great Qing Dynasty Qianlong Period". Late 20th century. The mark appears to be next to identical to those used in Hong Kong in the 1960-70's, but in this case, in underglaze blue.
758. Mark: Da Qing Qianlong - "Great Qing Dynasty Qianlong Period". Late 20th century.

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115. Da Qing Qianlong (Great Qing Qianlong). The gold mark reads: JAPAN CHINA, DECORATED IN, HONG KONG, which seems to indicate that the actual porcelain bowl might be Japanese, while the decoration is added in Hong Kong. Notice that the red mark also must have been applied in Hong Kong since it is actually moved off center to give way for the gold mark. Probably 1960s.


ROYAL SATSUMA
633. Mark: MADE IN CHINA SATSUMA. Chinese copy of Japanese "Satsuma" ware. Late 20th century.

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635. Mark: HANDPAINIED (sic) ROYAL SATSUMA. Zhongguo To Ci Jin Pin meaning 'China Pottery Porcelain Fine Products'. Chinese copy of Japanese "Satsuma" ware. After 1980.

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21. Mark: SATSUMA MADE IN CHINA. Modern mark on a copy of Japanese "Satsuma" ware.


Shende Tang Zhi - (Made for The Hall of Prudent Virtue)
The 'Shende Tang' (Hall of Prudent Virtue) referred to in the base mark was the residence of the Daoguang Emperor in the Yuanming Yuan summer palace in the outskirts of Beijing, where it was located at the western side of the Jiuzhou Qingyan (Palace of Peace in the Nine Regions). The Shende Tang was completed in 1831, thus making Daoguang pieces with this mark attributable to the two decades between 1831 and 1850; see Ming Wilson, Rare Marks on Chinese Ceramics, London, 1998, cat. no. 8, where a yellow-glazed bowl with cranes bearing this mark is illustrated, from the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
126. Shende Tang Zhi - "Shende Tang Made", where "Zeng" is accumulating, collecting, learning, "De" is virtue, "Tang" is hall.
144. Mark: Shende Tang Zhi - "Shende Hall Made". This could be translated as 'Made for the Hall of Prudent Virtue'. This mark first appeared in the Daoguang period and continued to be used until mid 20 th Century. This mark: Guangxu period (1875-1908) or a few decades into the 20th century.
299. Mark: Shende Tang Zhi - Shende Hall Made. This mark: Probably early to mid 20th century.

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Taiwan
185. Mark: Da Tong Yao, Taiwan, (Da Tong Kiln, Taiwan). Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.


Tang Shan Porcelain Factories, from 1920s
Tang Shan is a city in Hebei province. In 1976 the Tang Shan earthquake wiped out the entire city. Tang Shan has produced porcelain of good quality but less known then it southern competitors Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province and the Liling kiln in Hunan but has produced grand pieces in similar styles. The 1965 Tangshan Ceramic book tell there were three major porcelain factories in Tangshan from 1920s. The Qi Xin Factory, first established in 1924 and changed name to Tangshan 5th factory around 1950s, sub-divided to Yue Feng Sub-division Factory in 1958. The second factory was the De Cheng factory and the third, the Xin Min factory.

Picture: Tang Shan De Cheng Factory, c. 1930

1325. Vase of eggshell thinness. Tangshan 4th Porcelain Factory, Yue Feng Sub-division, c. 1960. Mark reads from left to right, first line says 唐山西(Si (fourth))陶 (Tang Shan Si Tao), The forth character 陶 means pottery. The second line reads 裕丰分厂 (Yu Feng Fen Chang). 裕丰 is the name of the company and 分厂 basically means branch factory which gives us Yue Feng Sub-division Factory.

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1326. Teapot. Mark: Min Gou Tang Shan Tangshan Bone China, Made In China, modern export porcelain, c 1960-90.

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1327. Plate. Mark: Min Gou Tang Shan Tangshan Fine Bone China, Made In China, modern export porcelain, c 1960-80.

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1328. Vase decorated in green monochrome glaze. Mark: unclear but probably Min Gou Tang Shan, date c. 1960-80.

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Tongzhi Nian Zhi-Tongzhi Period [1862-74] Make
For all practical purposes I have decided to think of all hand written Tongzhi marks as of the Tongzhi period and those who are stamped, as later and with few exceptions of the later Guangxu period (1875-1908). So far this seems to make sense with the certain exception of marks from the Cultural Revolution period, when Tongzhi marks enjoyed an unexplained popularity on items decorated in Macau or Hong Kong. One complicating matter is also that some seal marks that looks stamped could well be hand drawn or, stamped and then manually touched up. In those cases I think we can assume that the piece is of the period.
287. Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Make". Handwritten and probably of the period. Unfortunately we don't have a picture of the piece.
1323. Teapot with sepia decoration from Journey to the West. Mark: Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi Period Make". Mark most carefully hand drawn to look like a neat seal. Possibly of the period.

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298. Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Make". Stamped mark, probably Guangxu period or slightly thereafter.

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754. Mark: Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi Period Make". Stamped mark, dating to after the Guangxu period comfirmed by date in the inscription "made by Cheung Wen-tai in the winter of 1909", inscription meant to congratulate people on a bright and promising career etc.

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489. Bowl. Mark: Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Make". Probably Guangxu period or later

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269. Tongzhi Nian Zhi-"Tongzhi Period Make". Probably not antique. The date is uncertain and no picture of the piece is available for help. The mark is similar to mark #107 but the general looks seems to suggest Macau decorated porcelain from third quarter of the 20th century.


Tongzhi Nian Zhi, Da Qing (1862-74)
For all practical purposes I have decided to think of all hand written Tongzhi marks as of the period and those who are stamped, as later and usually of the Guangxu period. So far as when compared to the dated reference porcelain we have collected so far this seems to work. One minor complicating matter is that some seal marks that looks stamped could well be hand drawn or, stamped and then manually improved. The quality of the pieces is always more important then what the mark says.
851. Dish fencai decoration on Celadon ground. Mark: Unclear mark probably saying Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi, meaning: Great Qing Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Make. Date: Second half of the 19th century.

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64. Bowl. Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi, meaning: Great Qing Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Make. Date: Second half of the 19th century.

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1066. Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi, meaning: Great Qing Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Make. Date: Second half of the 19th century possible of the period.

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706. Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Tongzhi (1862-74) Period Make". Probably Guangxu (1875-1908) period or somewhat later. Good quality stamped mark.

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139. Lids. Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi-Great Qing Tongzhi Period Make. Probably Guangxu period or later.

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1350. Bowl with coral red enamel. Mark: Tongzhi Nian Zhi - "Tongzhi Period Make". Apparently hand drawn mark. Thanks to the triangular number mark, easy to pinpoint to Macau or Hong Kong 1960s or later.

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1346. Ginger jar with enamel decoration. Mark: Da Qing Tongzhi Nian Zhi-Great Qing Tongzhi Period Make. The mark is stamped. Date probably third quarter of the 20th century.

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UNITED WILSON
United Wilson Porcelain Factory, Unit A-H, 9th Floor, H.K. Industrial Building 444-452 Des Voeux Road, West Hong Kong, China. Factory still in operation.
942. Mark: "UW". Mark used by United Wilson Porcelain Factory. Factory still in operation.
639. Mark: UW. Used by United Wilson, Hong Kong. Porcelain manufactured in China. Date: Modern, probably 1990s.

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Wah Lee Factory Made Hong Kong
This mark was used by "Wah Lee Co." and was picked up from Mr Kung's shop in Hong Kong in 2001, and dated by him, the former factory owner. No western characters were used together with this mark. The Wa Lee Factory opened on Peng Chau Island in 1953 and closed in 1968. Peng Chau is a small island, one hour boat journey east of the Hong Kong island, with only a few inhabitants. The factory was one of five or six on Peng Chau and at most employed 80 workers. The decorators was trained by experts having moved from Jingdezhen.
263. Mark: Wa Lee Factory Made, (Decorated in Hong Kong, 1960).

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314. Mark: Wah Lee Factory Made. Factory owner's dating: 1960.

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Wan Shou Wu Jiang-decorations
Wan-ten thousand 1438. Wan-Auspicious character meaning innumerable, literary 'ten thousand'. Occurs in modern contemporary Chinese porcelain decorations. Probably 1985-2000.

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Shou-longevity 1439. Shou-Auspicious character meaning 'longevity'. Occurs in modern contemporary Chinese porcelain decorations. Probably 1985-2000.

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Wu 1440. Wu-Auspicious character meaning 'no', together with jiang as in wujiang meaning 'limitless'. Occurs in modern contemporary Chinese porcelain decorations. Probably 1985-2000.

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Jiang 1441. Jiang-Auspicious character meaning 'border', together with wu as in wujiang meaning 'limitless'. Occurs in modern contemporary Chinese porcelain decorations. Probably 1985-2000.

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Wanyu
Wanyu appears on Chinese porcelain from the Kangxi period and onwards. The mark shows the characters for (top) plaything/to play and (bottom) jade. The meaning is rather abstract but can perhaps be translated as "jade trinket" or "antique porcelain as fine as jade". The mark first appeared in Kangxi but has been used well into the 20th century. It is also one of the marks used on later Bleu de Hue porcelain for the Vietnamese market
1251. Small vase, coral red enamels with stamped gilt decoration. Height 11 cm. Mark: Wan Yu. Date: Late Qing to Early Republic.

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34. Mark: Wanyu, "jade trinket". Porcelain appears to be Bleu de Hue from around 1900.
1205. Plate, mark: Wanyu.
1206. Bowl. Mark: Wanyu. This mark appears to be applied with a rubber stamp, underglaze blue decoration transfer printed. Date probably 1925-45 or later.

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Wen
Wen, a Chinese surname
1368. Bowl. Mark: Wen. A chinese surname, also the word for script, writing. Date; late 20th century, probably around 1990.

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"WL 1895" (Unconfirmed Asian origin)
This mark is as far as we can tell a modern one. It occurs in red, blue or black. It has been suggested that the WL should be read as a "Wong Lee" or "Wah Lee" (WL) company with its residence in Hong Kong. Recent products with this mark is found with a sticker saying "Made in China". Other are labeled "not for food" which dates the item to not older then around 1975. Others still lack other marks than the WL1895 mark. The porcelain pieces are generally made in an old style, often with a crackled ground and often with badly cast bronze (ormolu) fittings. On the foot rim is sometimes found two Chinese characters meaning "fang gu" or "imitating old (relic)" which belongs to the time after the Cultural Revolution that ended in 1975. The porcelain itself does not immediately look as from Jingdezhen while it remains possible. The enamel decoration appears similar to what I have begun to call Macau style. On the whole, the origin appears to be a commercial Chinese export, active from maybe the 1980s and onwards. Exactly where this porcelain is made remains unproven.
1052. Mark: "WL 1895" On porcelain with crackled ground, in the general style of Napoleon III. Date: Modern, probably c. 1990. Origin unknown. On the foot rim what appears to be Chinese numbers.

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1302. Mark: "WL 1895" On plain white porcelain, added to the base is the text warning about not suitable for food plus a sticker saying "Made in China". Date: Modern, probably c. 1990.

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1303. Porcelain figures of dogs. Decorated in underglaze blue. Mark: "WL 1895" and near the rim, two Chinese characters "Fang gu", meaning "imitating old/relic". Date: Modern, probably second half of 20th century.

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1407. Porcelain figures of dogs. Decorated in underglaze blue. Mark: "WL 1895" and near the rim, two Chinese characters "Fang gu", meaning "imitating old/relic". Date: Modern, probably second half of 20th century.

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1304. Porcelain box decorated with Masonic emblems. Mark: "WL 1895" and on near the rim, two Chinese characters "Fang gu", meaning "imitating old/relic". Date: Modern, probably second half of 20th century.

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Xianfeng Nian Zhi (Xianfeng Period (1851-61) Make)
918. Mark: Xian Feng Nian Zhi, meaning: "Made in the Year (or Reign) of the Xianfeng". Calligraphy written from left to right in the modern way. Writing from left to right in a single line (along with the general use of European-American grammar structure) occurs after the mid-1950s in mainland China alone. Strong bodied Chinese blue/white plate, 25.3 cm diam. The foot has a hole for hanging. Second half 20th century.

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Xiang Gang Jia Gong
This mark reads Xiang gang jia gong which translates to "Hong Kong Final Process". The meaning is that the decoration is added in Hong Kong, which implies that the porcelain blanks could be either Chinese or Japanese.
1393. Dish. Mark: Xiang gang jia gong meaning "Hong Kong Final Process". Date 1960s to 1970s.

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803. Dish. Mark: Xiang gang jia gong meaning "Hong Kong Final Process". Date 1960s to 1970s.


Xing Huang Yao Zhi - ('Dazzling Star' Kiln Make)
Modern ware from the 1960-70s or even later. Modern ware, probably South Chinese - Guangzhou, Macau or Hong Kong style decoration.
1476. Mark: Xing Huang Yao Zhi - (Star Dazzling Kiln Make) Mid to late 20th century. Guangzhou (Canton), Macau or Hong Kong style decoration on crackled glaze of imitated Ge type.

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Ya Wan Zhen Cang - (Delicate Collectable Precious Treasure)
This appears to be a private collector's or a factory mark. It occurs on porcelain figures in 18th-19th century style, elaborate vases with applied decoration and plates. Marks appear handwritten and stamped. The handwritten mark is found on plate #1229 that I feel is of a style developed in Guangzhou (Canton) in the 1950s. The stamped marks appears to be later; 1960-70s or even later, and on pieces in Macau or Hong Kong style enamels.
116, 120. Mark: Ya Wan Zhen Cang - (Delicate Collectable Precious Treasure). Private Collector's or factory mark on porcelain figures in 18th-19th century style. Mid to late 20th century. Guangzhou (Canton) or Hong Kong style late enamels-fencai.
1292. Vase with applied decoration of flowers. Mark: Ya Wan Zhen Cang - (Delicate Collectable Precious Treasure). Mid to late 20th century. Guangzhou (Canton) or Hong Kong style late enamels-fencai.

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1473. Lidded jar with decoration of flowers. Mark: Ya Wan Zhen Cang - (Delicate Collectable Precious Treasure). Probably Macao style late enamels - fencai. Mid to late 20th century, tentative date c. 1970.

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1229. Plate. Mark: Ya Wan Zhen Cang - (Delicate Collectable Precious Treasure). Mid to late 20th century. Guangzhou (Canton) or Hong Kong style late enamels, fencai.

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Yang Cheng - Goat City, old name of Canton (Guangzhou)
603. Mark: Yang Cheng. Yang Cheng is the ancient name of Canton (Guangzhou) City, literally meaning Goat City. The picture is a pair of goats holding a vase. Possibly 1940-60's. Myth legend tells of Guangzhou was founded by Five Immortals riding five rams, each ram planted a stalks of rice grain which symbolizes abundant of harvest or prosperity.

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164. Mark: Yang Cheng. Yang Cheng is the ancient name of Canton City, meaning Goat City. The picture is a pair of goats holding a vase. Possibly 1960s

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488. Mark: Yang Cheng Wu Chen Nian Zhi - "Canton Wu Chen Year Made". Matching years for "Wu Chen" are 1988, 1928, 1868, 1808 and so on.

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Yong [?] Tang Hall
745. "Good luck" vase. China, mid 20th century. Mark: "Yong '?' Tang (hall) Made. On the inside a sticker saying "Made in the Peoples Republic of China".

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1391. Tureen. China, mid 20th century. Mark: "Yong '?' Tang (hall) Made. On the inside a sticker saying "Made in the Peoples Republic of China".

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Yong Sheng Cai Ci Chang - Yong Sheng Decorative Porcelain Factory/th>
Yong Sheng Cai Ci Chang 387. Mark: Yong Sheng Cai Ci Chang - Yong Sheng Decorative Porcelain Factory. Large fish bowl, decorated in traditional Rose Medallion style. Tentative date c. 1970s.

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Yongzheng Nian Zhi (Yongzheng Period Make)
Decorative marks, not of the period. See individual marks below for approximate date
93. Yongzheng Nian Zhi - "Yongzheng Period Make". Underglaze blue hand painted seal mark. Mid 20th century, high quality.
167. Yongzheng Nian Zhi - "Yongzheng Period Make". Red rubber stamped seal mark. 20th century.


Yongzheng Nian Zhi, Da Qing - Yongzheng Period Make, Great Qing Dynasty
Decorative marks, not of the period. See individual marks below for approximate date
739. Mark: Da Qing Yongzheng Nian Zhi - "Great Qing Yongzheng Period Make" Underglaze blue hand painted seal mark. 20th century. This one I am very uncertain about since I have only got these pictures to look at. The decoration as such on this vase could be Guangxu (early 20th century) but the vase and its mark looks at most a decade old to me. The enamels also seems from the picture to be similar to the ones used in Macau, in the 1970s. Kindly notice that this is my personal opinions only and THIS IS VERY DIFFICULT to say anything about based on pictures alone. Still, this mark is also included in the Macau section until further until we have seen more of this type and can date it with a greater amount of certainty.

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708. Mark: Da Qing Yongzheng Nian Zhi - Great Qing dynasty Yongzheng Period Make, but probably 1990-2000.


Yue [Guang] Dong Qi Chang - East Guangdong Porcelain Factory
387. Mark: Yue Dong Qi Chang - East Guangdong Porcelain Factory


Zhongguo Tang Shan - China Tang Shan City
69. Mark: Zhongguo Tang Shan - (China Tang Shan City). Modern mark, North Chinese porcelain factory, c. 1990-95.


Zhongguo Wu Ci - China Wu Ci City
110. Zhongguo Wu Ci (China Wu Ci City). Late 20th century (probably 1980s)


Zhongguo Shamen - China Shamen City
177. Mark: Zhongguo Shamen - (China Shamen City). Modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
180. Modern mark, on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.


Zhongguo Lingnan - China Sha Gate City
181. Mark: Zhongguo Lingnan. Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.


Zhongguo, Made in China
189. Zhongguo - "China". Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon. C. 1970 and later.


Zhongguo Jingdezhen CHINA =#=
75. Mark: Zhongguo Jingdezhen, CHINA, =D= - China Jingdezhen. Mark from a square flask with 4 landscapes by Wang Yeting (1884-1942), one of the "eight friends of Zhushan", dated 1937. It is unlikely that the date of the painting in this case matches the mark which should date to the mid 1950s or later.
271. Zhongguo Jingdezhen - China Jingdezhen. Mark from two gilt on coral ground dishes. Dated by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong, to the 1950s. Similar dishes are still being made.

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274. Zhongguo Jingdezhen - China Jingdezhen. Dated by Mr. Kung, porcelain merchant in Hong Kong, to 1980, which seems like a large jump from the very similar # 271 above.

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567. Zhongguo Jingdezhen - China Jingdezhen. Porcelain vase made in "Jingdezhen" in 1968 to mark the Chinese cultural revolution, led by chairman Mao. Decorated with Tian-An-Men Square and Hua Biao surrounded by a group of sun flowers. Text on Balloons with ribbons are "Chairman Mao lives long life", "the Communist Party lives long life" and Mao-Zhu-Xi-Wan-Sui "Chairman Mao's revolutionary route have success and live long life".

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Zhongguo Jingdezhen Made In China (Left to Right)
This "China Jingdezhen" mark of good quality and with the factory numbers or letters no longer used, is currently in use on export porcelain today. I would prefer to date these marks as just "modern" and unlikely to be much older than the 1980s. The first mark listed here is from a mug dated to 1983 which confirms the timeframe as the last quarter of the 20th century.
1455. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China'. Mark from a mug dated 1983.

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43. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China'.
204. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China'.
203. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =03=.
196. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =07=.
200. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =08=.
258, 201. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =09=. Lidded tea cup, c. 1970.

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1076. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =15=. Possibly modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.

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526. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =16=.
207. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =21=.
525. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =31=.
202. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =42=.
245. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =I=.
1385. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =N=.

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581. Mark: Zhongguo (China) Jingdezhen 'Made In China' =N=.


Zhongguo Zhi Zao, 中国制造 China Made (old style, from right to left)
This four character mark means plain and simple, Made in China, written in Chinese. In these marks the characters are written in the traditional old fashioned way meaning from top to bottom, from right to left. This is the traditional way of writing despite that the name of China has been chosen for the mark which suggests to me a period for this mark, to between the establishing of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949 and the Cultural Revolution in 1965-70.
697. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao, meaning 'China Made' written from right to left. The vase is a Chinese copy of Japanese Satsuma style moriage. Tentative date 1950-75.

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101. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made.
411. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made. Mid 20th century.
503. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made. Probably Hong Kong c. 1950s

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267. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made. This mark is unique so far in that the characters are drawn one by one inside a frame. Tentative date 1950-75.
501. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - "China Made". The zhong character is drawn as a bow and arrow. The decoration on this bowl is printed in a horrible quality and surely dates to the Cultural Revolution period (1966-1976).

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783. Mark: Made in China, Date c. 1980-1990

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81. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China made.
702. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - "China Made". Probably 1950s.

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Zhongguo Zhi Zao - 中国制造 - China Made (Modern style, left to right)
In these marks the characters are written in a modernized way, from left to right. This manner of writing dates on the whole to the period of the Cultural Revolution, meaning from around the late 1960s and later.
1029. Zhongguo Zhi Zao, meaning 'China Make'. Contemporary, last quarter of the 20th century.

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Zhongguo Zhi Zao - Made in China
5. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made.
967. Mark: Hand Painted Decoration, Made in China. Second half of the 20th century.

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28. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made. In this mark "Zhi Zao" is used which would rather translate as make-something new, to produce something out of raw material- while the more common "Zhi Zuo" could be translated as the more profane manufacture. On Chinese "Satsuma" copy basically "new", possible period (1970's-2000).

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1330. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made. In this mark "Zhi Zao" is used which would rather translate as make - something new, to produce something out of raw material- while the more common "Zhi Zuo" could be translated as the more profane manufacture. In photo 2, left hand side within reserve, a date of '73 can be seen, likely to be 1973.

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852. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made. In this mark "Zhi Zao" is used which would rather translate as make-something new, to produce something out of raw material- while the more common "Zhi Zuo" could be translated as the more profane manufacture. Date: "Off the shelf" February 2004.

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1035. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made. Tentative interpretation of this mark is 'Universal Porcelain Factory, Phoenix "H" brand, production unit/line -9-' date 1980-90.
54. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made
183. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made. Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
82. Mark: Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made
178. Mark: I>Zhongguo Zhi Zao - China Made. Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon. The similarity to mark 260. Dish. "Qianlong Nian Zhi", seems to indicate a date around 1970.
502. Mark: Zhongguo - China, c. 1950-1970


Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi - China Jingdezhen made (Right to Left)

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In around 1953 to 54, almost all the factories in Jiangxi were merged into larger units, each made up by ten to fifteen previously independent smaller factories. The use of alphabetic characters and numbers in the marks also seems to have started around this time. Long time porcelain merchant in Hong Kong, Mr. Kung, was when asked by Simon Ng on this, of the opinion that =09= and similar, were names assigned to each of the factories in Jingdezhen by the Communist Party. When asked if a factory could have more than one number, he also said that as far as he knew there were only one number for one factory. Now this doesn't match with reality since in long runs of the same pattern there seems to be different characters appearing at random. Recently I have also been asking around some in Jingdezhen, and the latest info on these letters are that the mark "=D=" etc doesn't have any meaning. They were simply put onto export wares to look nice. This really matches with the lack of system we have noticed so far and can possibly be true for the last decades, but was it so in the beginning? The research continues. One possibility is that the marks did have an organizational importance in the beginning but that the marks after some time got garbled.
235, 236. Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi - China Jingdezhen Made, factory # D
519. Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi - China Jingdezhen Made, factory # D

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1189. Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi - China Jingdezhen Made, factory # 21

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Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi - (China Jingdezhen made)
103. Mark: Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi (China Jingdezhen made). Possibly modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.
63. Mark: Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi - "China Jingdezhen made". Possibly modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.

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80. Mark: Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi (China Jingdezhen made). Possibly modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.
249. Mark: Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi (China Jingdezhen made). Possibly modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.
1248. Mark: Zhongguo Jingdezhen Zhi (China Jingdezhen made). Modern mark c. 1970 or/and later.

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Zhongguo Liling, China Liling
1453. Flower pot with printed western export market Christmas decoration, date second half 20th century. Mark: 中國醴陵 Zhongguo, Liling, China, Liling.

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1454. Bowl with transfer printed decoration, date second half 20th century. Mark: 中國醴陵 Zhongguo, Liling, Chu Pin China, Liling, Product.

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Zhongguo Chaozhou (Swatow)
23. Mark: Zhongguo Chaozhou - "China Swatow"
424. Mark: Zhongguo Chao Cai - "China, Swatow, Enamels". Probably 1970s.

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798. Plate with "mille fleure"-decoration. Zhongguo Chao Cai - "Enameled ware from Chao Zhou, China". The area is North West of Guangdong area, previously better know as part of Swatow. Late 20th century.

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Zhongguo, Zhong Yi, Jingdezhen - (China, Zhong Yi (factory), Jingdezhen)
121. Mark: Zhongguo (China), Zhong Yi (factory name), Jingdezhen. Underglaze blue and white eggshell bowl acquired at a private street side shop stall in Jingdezhen 1992.


RECENT ADDITIONS-PRINTED
182. Factory or brand name on modern Chinese porcelain. Probably 1985-90.

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188. Xiang Shan (Elephant Hill Brand). Elephant Hill is a popular tourist attraction in Guilin, Guangxi Province. Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
627. Late 20th century.
1034. Mark: Zhongguo Xin Hua meaning "China, New, Chemical Factory". The "S.H" (in green) is likely the hanyu pinyin acronym of "Xin Hua". Last decades of the 20th C.

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186. Mark on modern Chinese porcelain spoon.
1293. Stamped figure mark, modern.

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1491. Mark: Figure mark, unknown. Possibly Macao.

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379. Stamped mark on modern porcelain figure.
583. Late 20th century.

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751. "Made in China", Transfer printed decoration. 1970s?

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RECENT ADDITIONS-UNDERGLAZE BLUE
707. Zhongguo Longquan - "China Longquan", probably referring to the Celadon type glaze made famous by the Longquan kilns in Zhejiang province of South-Eastern China. Modern ware, late 20th century.

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175. Jingde Gu Yao - "Jingde Ancient Kiln". Modern, blue and white lidded tea bowl. C. 1990.
326. Tao Yu Zhen Cang - "Pottery and Jade Precious Treasure". Possibly late 20th C.
425. Yu - "Jade" (=Precious Treasure.) Possibly late 19th C.

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170. "Duo Haan Juo Zhi" Made for/by the House of Plenty Leisure. Modern replica of early 18th century blue and white porcelain, c. 1999/2000.
176. Mark on blue and white spoon, possibly 1880-1930.
587. "Artemisia" leaf mark. Originally common under Kangxi period but this stiff version is later, probably early 20th century.

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618. Wu Feng Ji Fei - "Five Phoenix Together Fly / Rise". Possibly early Republic c. 1920s.

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523. JI Yu Bao Ding Zhi Zhen - "Treasure of Cherished Jade and Precious Ding". Kangxi period, c. 1700.

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823. Late 19th century/early 20th century. Made by Bo Gu - (the name of the artist?) of Heng Feng Tang (name of the Porcelain Shop).

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1059. Seal mark within single frame. Wax seal "jianding"-modern export permit. Uncertain date. Possible new.

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879. Mark: Jiangxi Yuan Yu Hua, meaning: Drawn by Yuan Yu Hua in Jiangxi Province. The bird is commonly known as a 'White headed Granny'. The caption says 'Prosperity unto the old age'. The flower is likely peony, which is the flower of prosperity in Chinese. A similar piece with identical caption is in Dated Porcelain section, mark #102, with a signed date of 1914. Tentative date of this dish: around 1925.
1291. Copper red vase bound in metal. Unknown mark. Could possible be a combination of several Chinese character with the meanings of produce (zhanpin), daily (tian tian), and China (zhong) ware (yao).

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1329. Plate with transfer printed decoration in underglaze blue and white. Mark: Yun Mun Ci Chong, "The People's Porcelain Factory" on the reverse. Date 1970s and/or later.

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RECENT ADDITIONS-RED RUBBERSTAMP
517. Bing Shen Qiu Rou - "Bing Shen (Year) Autumn Month". Most likely year matching "Bing Shen" are 1896. Xiao Shan Zuo-Xiao Shan (Artist's name) Painted.
Base red mark : Gao Bo Sheng Hao-Gao Bo Sheng Company.

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961. Mark: "XXX Cang", meaning XXX's collection. The XXX is undecipherable. The two-line poem says "Yan Zi Zheng Chun Se, Xiu Qi Lin Qiu Feng", meaning "beautiful pose against spring scene, elegant manner sterning autumn wind" followed by the Porcelain Painter's signature of "Zhong Ming Shi Painted". Tentative date is the 1940s.

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782. Mark: Yau Kee '29' Hao, tentative translation "'Yau Kee' Factory Pattern number 29". Date c. 1960s. Possibly Hong Kong decorated.

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718. Qin Xiang Xing Zhi - "Qin Xiang Xing (factory) Made". Late 20th century, c. 1960-70.

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99. Artists name seal. c. 1930, eggshell porcelain.
520. Zhou Shun Xing Zao - " Zhou Shun Xing (Company) Made". Same as our #27

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522. Cheng Yi Tai Zao - "Cheng Yi Tai Made." Same as our #17 /18.

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719. Aspiration Mark Zhao Cai Jin Bao - "Inviting in Wealth and Treasure", c. 1890-1910.

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729. Xu Fu Xing Hao - "Xu" family or company. Tentative date 1870's or slightly later.

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897. Mark: "Hand Painted Porcelein". Tentative date: Mid 20th century.

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902.

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312. Zhou Jun Song (artist name) Zhi (Made). Xuantong (1909-1912) period.

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1338. Large bowl. Diameter 13 1/3" (34.3 cm), diam. 6" (15.2 cm)h. Square seal mark in archaic script within double frames. Dove blue enamels that came about through the Da Ya Zhai porcelains ("Grand Elegant Court" porcelain for the Empress Dowager Cixi) that was developed during the end of the 19th century and much copied during the early 20th century. Likely date 1920-30.

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390. "Li Rong Tai hao", "mark of Li Rongtai" (Wade-Giles: Li Jung-t'ai).
662. Hair's oil jar. Dated 1919.

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796. Toilet table box. Decoration: 'Qilin delivering a son'. Compare dated mark #662. Tentative date c. 1920

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1070. Bowl. Tentative date c. 1920.

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RECENT ADDITIONS-UNSORTED
45. Mark imitating a lacquer seal, with mythological animal
1436. Vase.

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389. "Niu" Chinese surname, possibly the name of the artist. Probably 1950s

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380. "Qian Men, Quan Ju De" (Front Gate, Quan Ju De (Restaurant)). Quan Ju De is a symbol of Old Peking, the famous Peking Duck shop opened in 1864. Front Gate, the city gate-was built in Yuan and original named Li Zheng Men. During Ming it was renamed to Zheng Yang Men which name has been kept until now, more commonly called Qian Men.
91. Kangxi style Artemisia leaf, c. 1950.

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481. Wang Qi Name Seal copy of "Wang Qi", one of the Eight Friends of Zhu Shan, specializing in figure drawings and Running Calligraphy. Modern, c. 1990-2000

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524. Gao Po, China. "Gao Po" is probably the name of a town. It is unclear though, in which way Gao Po is related to the porcelain.
601. Jie Zhu Zhu Ren Zuo-The Master of Jie Zhu Made. Name Mark or Collector's Mark, first appeared in the Daoguang (1821-50) period. Likely date for this mark is mid 20th century.

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617. Decorated i a combination of mille fleur and famille noire. Guangxu period / Early Republic, c. 1900-1930's

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443. Wei Yi Zhai - "The Singular (one and only) Studio", 4th quarter 20th century..

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713. Modern porcelain figure. Signature of the Artist: "...hand made by Lam Wai Tung". Late 20th century.

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1406. Tea set, eggshell porcelain, China, first quarter of the 20th century.

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This entire marks section would not have been possibly without the dedicated help of Mr. Simon Ng, City University of Hong Kong whose translations and personal efforts in researching the origin and dates of the different marks is and has been an invaluable resource.

This section was originally initiated by a donation of marks from the collection of Karl-Hans Schneider, Euskirchen, Germany in July 2000. The section have since then been greatly extended by several contributors such as Michaela Russel, Australia, Cordelia Bay, USA, Walt Brygier, USA, Bonnie Hoffmann, Harmen Lensink and Simon Ng, Hong Kong. Readers are invited to supply any information and further marks you might have.

All material submitted by visitors and published anywhere on this site are and remain the copyrighted property of the submitter and appears here by permission of the owner, which can be revoked at any time. All expressed opinions are my personal, based on photos and the owners submitted descriptions, and are not to be used for any financial or commercial decisions but for educational and personal interest only.

Web page © Jan-Erik Nilsson, 2000-2008.