During the Qing dynasty (1644-1912) the three early reigns of the Kangxi (1662-1722), Yongzheng (1732-35) and Qianlong (1736-95) emperors stand out as high points of artistic development. In 1680 there were about thirty workshops established within the walls of the Forbidden City of Peking, with the official task of producing works of art for the enjoyment of the emperor and his court. The palace workshops are known to have produced scroll paintings, silk screens, porcelain, enamel painting, carvings in ivory, jade and glass as well as snuff bottles crafted in various materials. In addition, outside the confines of the palaces, there were many private workshops crafting similar objects for the rich and noble part of the society. The Imperial workshops was greatly curtailed during the reign of the Jiaqing emperor (1796-1820).